Article

Is BAL useful in patients with acute myeloid leukemia admitted in ICU for severe respiratory complications?

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, AP-HP, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K (Impact Factor: 10.16). 07/2008; 22(7):1361-7. DOI: 10.1038/leu.2008.100
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In patients with hematological malignancy (HM) developing acute respiratory failure (ARF) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is considered as a major diagnostic tool. However, the benefit/risk ratio of this invasive procedure is probably lower in the subset of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The study was to analyze the yield of BAL performed in HM patients (n=175) with AML or lymphoid malignancies (LM) admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) for ARF and pulmonary infiltrates. BAL was performed in 121 patients (53/73 AML patients (73%) and 68/102 LM patients (67%)) without a definite diagnosis at admission or contraindication for fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Life-threatening complications were noticed in 12/121 patients (10%). The overall diagnostic yield of BAL was 47% (25/53) in AML patients and 50% (34/68) in LM patients. A microorganism was recovered from BAL in 23% (12/53) of AML patients and 41% (28/68) of LM patients (P<0.005). BAL results induced significant therapeutic changes in 17% (9/53) of AML patients vs 35% (24/68) of LM patients (P=0.039). This study underlines the rather low diagnostic yield of BAL for infectious diagnosis and the low rate of therapeutic changes induced by its results in AML patients with ARF admitted in ICU.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
89 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This retrospective study evaluated the utility and safety of surgical lung biopsy (SLB) in cancer patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: All cases of critically ill patients with cancer and diagnosed with ARDS who underwent SLB in a tertiary care hospital from January 2002 to July 2009 were reviewed. Clinical data including patient baseline characteristics, surgical complications, pathological findings, treatment alterations, and survival outcomes were retrospectively collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 16 critically ill patients with cancer diagnosed with ARDS who underwent SLB were enrolled. The meantime from ARDS onset to SLB was 3.0 +/- 1.5 days. All SLB specimens offered a pathological diagnosis, and specific diagnoses were made in 9 of 16 patients. Biopsy findings resulted in a change in therapy in 11 of 16 patients. Overall, the SLB surgical complication rate was 19% (3/16). SLB did not directly cause the observed operative mortality. The ICU mortality rate was 38% (6/16). Patients who switched therapies after SLB had a trend toward decreased mortality than patients without a change in therapy (27% versus 60%; P = 0.299). CONCLUSIONS: In selected critically ill cancer patients with ARDS, SLB had a high diagnostic yield rate and an acceptable surgical complication rate.
    Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 05/2013; 8(1):128. · 0.90 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is often performed in patients with acute leukemia developed with respiratory failure or pulmonary infiltrates. Patients usually undergo BAL to rule out infection. Occasionally, however, leukemic infiltrate may be detected. We present a series of 11 cases in which the diagnosis of leukemia was made on the BAL material. We retrospectively reviewed all BAL samples from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. There were a total of 1,130 cases, of which 139 showed malignant cytology, including 10 with leukemia. Sixteen samples were unsatisfactory and 904 were benign, of which 32 had identifiable microorganisms. In additional to the 10 leukemia cases identified, two more were reviewed after the search criteria. The 12 patients (seven men, five women) ranged from 22 to 75 years old. All patients had previously biopsy-proven leukemia [two acute myelomonocytic leukemia, two acute promyelocytic leukemia, two acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with inv16, two therapy-related AML, one acute monocytic leukemia, one chronic myeloid leukemia in blast face, one AML with maturation, one myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts, and one large granular leukemia]. Four had a prior diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome. The time from initial diagnosis of leukemia to BAL ranged from 1 to 233 days, with 8 of 10 occurring within 8 days of diagnosis. Symptoms that prompted BAL included shortness of breath/hypoxia (8), fever (3), chest pain (2), and cough (2). Chest X-rays in all cases revealed opacities or consolidations mimicking an inflammatory process. Seven patients subsequently died, while three were alive, and, in remission, and two were lost to follow-up. The presence of a leukemic infiltrate can mimic infection. BAL is a relatively safe and useful diagnostic tool in this setting for differentiating a leukemic infiltrate from an infection/inflammatory infiltrate. The prognosis of patients with lung involvement of acute leukemia is poor. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2012; © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 11/2012; · 1.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Advances in the management of malignancies and organ failures have led to substantial increases in survival as well as in the number of cancer patients requiring ICU admission. Although effectiveness of ICU in this group remains controversial, the heterogeneity of its population in terms of the nature and curability of their disease, and the severity of critical illness and underlying conditions, may explain the plethora of issues arising when considering cancer patients for ICU admission, especially from the view of limited resources and ICU beds. The most frequent reasons leading a cancer patient to ICU are post-operative, respiratory failure, infection and sepsis. Although reasons of admission, nature and number of organ failures, type of malignancy and therapies that have preceded ICU admission may affect outcome, reliable scoring systems or survival predictors are missing. Literature suggests that organ dysfunction should be managed at its onset, while aggressive ICU management should be reappraised after a few days of full support. A multidisciplinary treating team of physicians should aid in changing the goals from restorative to palliative care when there appears to be no possible benefit from any treatment. End-of life-decisions and code status should be made by consensus, based on patients’ autonomy and dignity. Further interventional multicenter studies are required to assess post ICU burden, long-term medical outcomes and quality of life in this cohort of patients
    Journal of Critical Care. 01/2014;

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
9 Downloads
Available from
May 16, 2014