Bariatric Surgery Outcomes in Morbidly Obese with the Metabolic Syndrome at US Academic Centers

Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern, 4500 South Lancaster Road (Ste-112), Dallas, TX, 75216, USA.
Obesity Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.75). 04/2008; 18(10):1273-7. DOI: 10.1007/s11695-008-9526-7
Source: PubMed


The metabolic syndrome is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We assessed the in-hospital outcomes of bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients with the metabolic syndrome in comparison to a control group without the metabolic syndrome.
Using ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedure codes, clinical data for 20,242 patients with and without the metabolic syndrome who underwent bariatric surgery over a 5-year period were obtained from the University HealthSystem Consortium database.
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among bariatric surgery patients was 27.4%. Patients with the metabolic syndrome presented significantly higher overall morbidity as compared to morbidly obese patients without the metabolic syndrome (8.6% vs. 5.8%; p < 0.01), and similar mortality (0.04% vs. 0.01%; p = 0.2) after bariatric surgery. Hispanics with the metabolic syndrome had the highest morbidity rates, and men had the uppermost mortality. In-hospital bariatric surgery outcomes were significantly improved among patients who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.
The data suggest that the presence of the metabolic syndrome affects inter-ethnic and gender-specific short-term outcomes after bariatric surgery.

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    • "Then, how can our metabolic systems (which work reacting immediately to substrate or regulator concentrations, hormonal signals, gene expression, etc.) wait years to develop metabolic syndrome-related diseases. In addition, the effects of these uncovered illnesses cannot be easily reversed by exercise (Thomas et al., 2010), low energy diets, with even lower lipid (Straznicky et al., 2010) or the ultimate surgical removal of excess fat (Varela et al., 2008)? What is the basis for this double-sided inertia? "
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome is basically a maturity-onset disease. Typically, its manifestations begin to flourish years after the initial dietary or environmental aggression began. Since most hormonal, metabolic, or defense responses are practically immediate, the procrastinated response do not seem justified. Only in childhood, the damages of the metabolic syndrome appear with minimal delay. Sex affects the incidence of the metabolic syndrome, but this is more an effect of timing than absolute gender differences, females holding better than males up to menopause, when the differences between sexes tend to disappear. The metabolic syndrome is related to an immune response, countered by a permanent increase in glucocorticoids, which keep the immune system at bay but also induce insulin resistance, alter the lipid metabolism, favor fat deposition, mobilize protein, and decrease androgen synthesis. Androgens limit the operation of glucocorticoids, which is also partly blocked by estrogens, since they decrease inflammation (which enhances glucocorticoid release). These facts suggest that the appearance of the metabolic syndrome symptoms depends on the strength (i.e., levels) of androgens and estrogens. The predominance of glucocorticoids and the full manifestation of the syndrome in men are favored by decreased androgen activity. Low androgens can be found in infancy, maturity, advanced age, or because of their inhibition by glucocorticoids (inflammation, stress, medical treatment). Estrogens decrease inflammation and reduce the glucocorticoid response. Low estrogen (infancy, menopause) again allow the predominance of glucocorticoids and the manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It is postulated that the equilibrium between sex hormones and glucocorticoids may be a critical element in the timing of the manifestation of metabolic syndrome-related pathologies.
    Frontiers in Endocrinology 02/2012; 3:27. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2012.00027
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    ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery is expanding worldwide. In a previous study, we found a threefold increase in the annual incidence in Sweden between 1987 and 1996. The aim of the present study was to describe the nationwide practice of bariatric surgery until 2005 and determine the perioperative mortality. All bariatric procedures were identified through linkage to the Swedish Inpatient Registry, kept by the National Board of Health and Welfare. Mortality data were obtained from the Swedish National Death Registry A total of 8,129 bariatric procedures were identified. Seventy-eight percent of the patients were women and the mean age was 40.3 years. Hospital stay averaged 6 days. There was a 27% increase in the number of procedures performed in 2005 compared to 1995. After a decline in the beginning of the century, an increase of 119% is noted from 2001 to 2005. In the beginning of the study period, simple gastric restrictive procedures dominated (79%), but these procedures declined gradually. Gastric bypass has had the opposite development and reached 79% of all performed bariatric procedures in 2005. Laparoscopy has been introduced under the study period and in 2005, 42% of all gastric bypasses were performed by laparoscopy. The 30-day mortality was 0.16%. In spite of the shift to more complex procedures, the operative mortality was low.
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