Extremely high prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected injection drug users in Taiwan
ABSTRACT An outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection among injection drug users (IDUs) occurred in Taiwan, and thereafter, injection drug use became the most frequent risk factor for HIV infection in Taiwan. We sought to study the prevalence of and genotypes causing hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV-infected IDUs in Taiwan.
A multicenter, longitudinal cohort study of 990 HIV-infected IDUs was conducted from 1993 through 2006. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of antibody to HCV and to determine the genotype of HCV.
The overall prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected IDUs was 96.6%. The annual prevalence increased from 65.5% before 2002 to 98.6% in 2006. The main circulating HCV genotypes were 1a (accounting for 29.2% of samples), 6a (23.5%), and 3a (20.2%), whereas 1b, the most predominant genotype circulating in the general population in Taiwan, accounted for only 13.2% of samples. Genotypes 2b (accounting for 6.6% of samples), 6k (2.9%), 2a (1.6%), 6g (1.6%), and 3b (1.2%) were present in only a few IDUs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that duration of injection drug use and a travel history to China or Southeast Asia were significantly associated with infection due to HCV genotypes 1a, 3, and 6.
Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected IDUs in Taiwan, with a predominance of infection due to genotypes 1a, 6a, and 3a, as a result of the impact of IDUs' behavior and their drug trafficking route. Our study revealed that HCV infection in IDUs originated from a geographically large transmission network that was mainly distinct from that associated with other HCV-infected individuals; this transmission network has also been documented in association with HIV infection in IDUs.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at a medical center in central Taiwan to understand the prevalence, associated factors, and microbiologic features for oropharyngeal yeast colonization in human immunodeficiency virus-infected outpatients. Oral yeast colonization was detected in 127 (45 %) patients, including 21 (16.5 %) colonized by more than one species. Of the 154 isolates, Candida albicans was the most common species (114, 74 %), followed by Candida dubliniensis (10, 6.5 %), Candida glabrata (10, 6.5 %), Candida tropicalis (7, 4.5 %), and 13 others. We found that receiving antituberculous drug (p = 0.046) or atazanavir (p = 0.045) was two predictors for patients colonized by non-C. albicans species (p = 0.005) and risking mixed yeast colonization (p = 0.009). Even though our data showed that clinical antifungal drugs remained effective in vitro against the colonizing yeasts, the increased mixed yeast colonization indicates a potential issue for controlling mixed infections in hospital settings.Mycopathologia 05/2014; 177(5-6). DOI:10.1007/s11046-014-9753-5 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs) with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in southern Taiwan. For 562 IDUs (265 anti-HIV negative, 297 anti-HIV positive), we analyzed liver function, anti-HIV antibody, anti-HCV antibody, HCV viral loads, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HIV RNA viral loads and CD4 cell count for anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs and the HCV genotype for HCV RNA-seropositive IDUs were measured. The seroprevalence rates of anti-HIV, anti-HCV, and HBsAg were 52.8%, 91.3%, and 15.3%, respectively. All the anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs were positive for HIV RNA. Anti-HCV seropositivity was the most important factor associated with HIV infection (odds ratio [OR], 25.06; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 8.97-74.9), followed by male gender (OR, 6.12; 95% CI, 4.05-9.39) and HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.11-3.34). Among IDUs positive for anti-HCV, 80.7% had detectable HCV RNA. HCV viremia after HCV exposure was strongly related to HIV infection (OR, 6.262; 95% CI, 1.515-18.28), but negatively correlated to HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 0.161; 95% CI, 0.082-0.317). HCV genotype 6 was the most prevalent genotype among all IDUs (41.0%), followed by genotypes 1 (32.3%), 3 (12.8%), and 2 (5.6%). In conclusion, about half IDUs were infected with HIV and >90% with HCV infection. Male and seropositivity for HBsAg and anti-HCV were factors related to HIV infection among our IDUs. HIV was positively correlated, whereas hepatitis B co-infection was negatively correlated with HCV viremia among IDUs with HCV exposure. Different HCV molecular epidemiology was noted among IDUs.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094791 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are closely linked and both increase patient mortality. The association of HCV and risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has not been analyzed with competing risk model. Method: We enrolled a prospective cohort of 4,185 patients (mean age, 62 years; 41% female) registered in the CKD integrated care program at two affiliated hospitals of Kaohsiung Medical University in Taiwan between November 11, 2002 and May 31, 2009. With competing risk model, we analyzed the association of HCV infection, defined by seropositive of anti-HCV antibody, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, defined by seropositive of HBV surface antigen, with the risk of entering ESRD. Results: The prevalence of HCV infection was 7.6% and it increased with the CKD stages (trend test, P < 0.001), while the prevalence of HBV infection was 7.4% and no specific trend among CKD stages (tend test, P = 0.1). During the 9,101 person-year follow-up period, there were 446 death and 1,205 patients entering ESRD. After adjusting death as the competing risk, the estimated 5-year cumulative incidence rate of ESRD among patients with and without HCV infection were 52.6% and 38.4%, respectively (modified log-rank, P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis showed that HCV infection, but not HBV infection, had higher risk of developing ESRD compared with cases without infection (HCV, HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.07-1.62; HBV, HR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.89-1.35). Subgroup analyses showed consistent results. Conclusions: With death-adjusted competing risk analysis, HCV infection is associated with an increased risk of developing ESRD in CKD cohort.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100790. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100790 · 3.53 Impact Factor