Identificating cathepsin D as a biomarker for differentiation and prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by laser capture microdissection and proteomic analysis.
ABSTRACT In this study, we applied laser capture microdissection and a proteomic approach to identify novel nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biomarkers. Proteins from pooled microdissected NPC and normal nasopharyngeal epithelial tissues (NNET) were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and differential proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Expression of the differential protein cathepsin D in the above two tissues as well as four NPC cell lines was determined by Western blotting. Next, siRNA was used to inhibit the expression of cathepsin D in highly metastatic NPC cell line 5-8F to examine whether it associates with NPC metastasis. Immunohistochemistry was also performed to detect the expression of cathepsin D in 72 cases of primary NPC, 28 cases of NNET, and 20 cases of cervical lymph node metastases, and the correlation of its expression level with clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Thirty-six differential proteins between the NPC and NNET were identified. The expression level of cathepsin D in the two types of tissues was confirmed by Western blotting and related to differentiation degree and metastatic potential of the NPC cell lines. Down-regulated cathepsin D expression by siRNA significantly decreased in vitro invasive ability of 5-8F cells. Significant cathepsin D down-regulation was observed in NPC versus NNET, whereas significant cathepsin D up-regulation was observed in lymph node metastasis versus primary NPC. In addition, cathepsin D down-regulation was significantly correlated with poor histological differentiation, whereas cathepsin D up-regulation was significantly correlated with advanced clinical stage, recurrence, and lymph node and distant metastasis. Furthermore, survival curves showed that patients with cathepsin D up-regulation had a poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that cathepsin D expression was an independent prognostic indicator. The data suggest that cathepsin D is a potential biomarker for the differentiation and prognosis of NPC, and its dysregulation might play an important role in the pathogenesis of NPC.
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ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high metastatic character in the clinic, but its mechanism is not clear. As a carcinogen with organ specificity for the nasopharyngeal epithelium, N,N'-Dinitrosopiperazine (DNP) is involved in NPC metastasis. Herein, our data revealed that anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) was overexpressed in human NPC tissues, particularly in cervical lymph node metastatic NPC (LMNPC). High AGR2 expression was associated with NPC metastasis. Importantly, DNP induced AGR2 expression, and increased cell motility and invasion in the NPC cell line 6-10B. However, DNP-mediated cell motility and invasion was dramatically decreased when transfected with siRNA-AGR2. Further, AGR2 directly regulated cathepsin (CTS) B and D by binding them in vitro. These results indicate that DNP induces AGR2 expression, regulates CTSB and CTSD, increases cell motility and invasion, and promotes NPC tumor metastasis. Therefore, DNP-mediated AGR2 expression may be an important factor in prolific NPC metastasis.PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(4):e92081. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in southern China and southern Asia, and poses one of the most serious public health problems in these areas. Early diagnosis, predicting metastasis, recurrence, prognosis and therapeutic response of NPC remain a challenge. Discovery of diagnostic and predictive biomarkers is an ideal way to achieve these objectives. Proteomics has great potential in identifying cancer biomarkers. Comparative proteomics has identified a large number of potential biomarkers associated with NPC, although the clinical performance of such biomarkers needs to be further validated. In this article, we review the latest discovery and progress of biomarkers for early diagnosis, predicting metastasis, recurrence, prognosis and therapeutic response of NPC, inform the readers of the current status of proteomics-based NPC biomarker findings and suggest avenues for future work.Expert Review of Proteomics 03/2014; · 3.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high metastatic feature. N,N[prime]-Dinitrosopiperazine (DNP) is involved in NPC metastasis, but its mechanism is not clear. The aim of this study is to reveal the pathogenesis of DNP-involved metastasis. 6-10B cells with low metastasis are from NPC cell line SUNE-1, were used to investigate the mechanism of DNP-mediated NPC metastasis. RESULTS: 6-10B cells were grown in DMEM containing 2H4-L-lysine and 13C615N4-L-arginine or conventional L-lysine and L-arginine, and identified the incorporation of amino acid by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Labeled 6-10B cells were treated with DNP at 0 -18 muM to establish the non-cytotoxic concentration (NCC)range. NCC was 0 -10 muM. Following treatment with DNP at this range, the motility and invasion of cells were detected in vitro, and DNP-mediated metastasis was confirmed in the nude mice. DNP increased 6-10B cell metastasis in vitro and vivo. DNP-induced protein expression was investigated using a quantitative proteomic. The SILAC-based approach quantified 2698 proteins, 371 of which showed significant change after DNP treatment (172 up-regulated and 199 down-regulated proteins). DNP induced the change in abundance of mitochondrial proteins, mediated the status of oxidative stress and the imbalance of redox state, increased cytoskeletal protein, cathepsin, anterior gradient-2, and clusterin expression. DNP also increased the expression of secretory AKR1B10, cathepsin B and clusterin 6-10B cells. Gene Ontology and Ingenuity Pathway analysis showed that DNP may regulate protein synthesis, cellular movement, lipid metabolism, molecular transport, cellular growth and proliferation signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: DNP may regulate cytoskeletal protein, cathepsin, anterior gradient-2, and clusterin expression, increase NPC cells motility and invasion, is involved NPC metastasis.BMC Biochemistry 11/2012; 13(1):25. · 1.78 Impact Factor