Structural determinants of ligand migration in Mycobacterium tuberculosis truncated hemoglobin O.
ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of human tuberculosis, one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world. Its genome hosts the glbN and glbO genes coding for two proteins, truncated hemoglobin N (trHbN) and truncated hemoglobin O (trHbO), that belong to different groups (I and II, respectively) of the recently discovered trHb family of hemeproteins. The different expression pattern and kinetics rates constants for ligand association and NO oxidation rate suggest different functions for these proteins. Previous experimental and theoretical studies showed that, in trHbs, ligand migration along the internal tunnel cavity system is a key issue in determining the ligand-binding characteristics. The X-ray structure of trHbO has been solved and shows several internal cavities and secondary-docking sites. In this work, we present an extensive investigation of the tunnel/cavity system ofM. tuberculosis trHbO by means of computer-simulation techniques. We have computed the free-energy profiles for ligand migration along three found tunnels in the oxy and deoxy w.t. and mutant trHbO proteins. Our results show that multiple-ligand migration paths are possible and that several conserved residues such as TrpG8 play a key role in the ligand-migration regulation.
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ABSTRACT: Among 20 p450s of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt), CYP121 has received an outstanding interest, not only due to its essentiality for bacterial viability but also because it catalyzes an unusual carbon-carbon coupling reaction. Based on the structure of the substrate bound enzyme, several reaction mechanisms were proposed involving first Tyr radical formation, second Tyr radical formation, and C-C coupling. Key and unknown features, being the nature of the species that generate the first and second radicals, and the role played by the protein scaffold each step. In the present work we have used classical and quantum based computer simulation methods to study in detail its reaction mechanism. Our results show that substrate binding promotes formation of the initial oxy complex, Compound I is the responsible for first Tyr radical formation, and that the second Tyr radical is formed subsequently, through a PCET reaction, promoted by the presence of key residue Arg386. The final C-C coupling reaction possibly occurs in bulk solution, thus yielding the product in one oxygen reduction cycle. Our results thus contribute to a better comprehension of MtCYP121 reaction mechanism, with direct implications for inhibitor design, and also contribute to our general understanding of these type of enzymes. Proteins 2013;. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 11/2013; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Internal water molecules play an active role in ligand uptake regulation, since displacement of retained water molecules from protein surfaces or cavities by incoming ligands can promote favorable or disfavorable effects over the global binding process. Detection of these water molecules by X-ray crystallography is difficult given their positional disorder and low occupancy. In this work, we employ a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and ligand rebinding over a broad time range to shed light into the role of water molecules in ligand migration and binding. Computational studies on the unliganded structure of the thermostable truncated hemoglobin from Thermobifida fusca (Tf-trHbO) show that a water molecule is in the vicinity of the iron heme, stabilized by WG8 with the assistance of YCD1, exerting a steric hindrance for binding of an exogenous ligand. Mutation of WG8 to F results in a significantly lower stabilization of this water molecule and in subtle dynamical structural changes that favor ligand binding, as observed experimentally. Water is absent from the fully hydrophobic distal cavity of the triple mutant YB10F-YCD1F-WG8F (3F), due to the lack of residues capable of stabilizing it nearby the heme. In agreement with these effects on the barriers for ligand rebinding, over 97% of the photodissociated ligands are rebound within a few nanoseconds in the 3F mutant case. Our results demonstrate the specific involvement of water molecules in shaping the energetic barriers for ligand migration and binding.The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 01/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The presence of cavities and tunnels in the interior of proteins, in conjunction with the structural plasticity arising from the coupling to the thermal fluctuations of the protein scaffold, has profound consequences on the pathways followed by ligands moving through the protein matrix. In this perspective we discuss how quantitative analysis of experimental rebinding kinetics from laser flash photolysis, trapping of unstable conformational states by embedding proteins within the nanopores of silica gels, and molecular simulations can synergistically converge to gain insight into the migration mechanism of ligands. We show how the evaluation of the free energy landscape for ligand diffusion based on the outcome of computational techniques can assist the definition of sound reaction schemes, leading to a comprehensive understanding of the broad range of chemical events and time scales that encompass the transport of small ligands in hemeproteins.Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 06/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor