Structural determinants of ligand migration in Mycobacterium tuberculosis truncated hemoglobin O.
ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of human tuberculosis, one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world. Its genome hosts the glbN and glbO genes coding for two proteins, truncated hemoglobin N (trHbN) and truncated hemoglobin O (trHbO), that belong to different groups (I and II, respectively) of the recently discovered trHb family of hemeproteins. The different expression pattern and kinetics rates constants for ligand association and NO oxidation rate suggest different functions for these proteins. Previous experimental and theoretical studies showed that, in trHbs, ligand migration along the internal tunnel cavity system is a key issue in determining the ligand-binding characteristics. The X-ray structure of trHbO has been solved and shows several internal cavities and secondary-docking sites. In this work, we present an extensive investigation of the tunnel/cavity system ofM. tuberculosis trHbO by means of computer-simulation techniques. We have computed the free-energy profiles for ligand migration along three found tunnels in the oxy and deoxy w.t. and mutant trHbO proteins. Our results show that multiple-ligand migration paths are possible and that several conserved residues such as TrpG8 play a key role in the ligand-migration regulation.
- Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 02/1997; 68(1):29-68. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as mediator in a variety of physiological functions, including neurotransmission, platelet aggregation, macrophage function, and vasodilation. The consumption of NO by extracellular hemoglobin and subsequent vasoconstriction have been suggested to be the cause of the mild hypertensive events reported during in vivo trials of hemoglobin-based O2 carriers. The depletion of NO from endothelial cells is most likely due to the oxidative reaction of NO with oxyhemoglobin in arterioles and surrounding tissue. In order to determine the mechanism of this key reaction, we have measured the kinetics of NO-induced oxidation of a variety of different recombinant sperm whale myoglobins (Mb) and human hemoglobins (Hb). The observed rates depend linearly on [NO] but show no dependence on [O2]. The bimolecular rate constants for NO-induced oxidation of MbO2 and HbO2 are large (k.ox,NO = 30-50 microM-1 s-1 for the wild-type proteins) and similar to those for simple nitric oxide binding to deoxygenated Mb and Hb. Both reversible NO binding and NO-induced oxidation occur in two steps: (1) bimolecular entry of nitric oxide into the distal portion of the heme pocket and (2) rapid reaction of noncovalently bound nitric oxide with the iron atom to produce Fe(2+)-N=O or with Fe(2+)-O-O delta- to produce Fe(3+)-OH2 and nitrate. Both the oxidation and binding rate constants for sperm whale Mb were increased when His(E7) was replaced by aliphatic residues. These mutants lack polar interactions in the distal pocket which normally hinder NO entry into the protein. Decreasing the volume of the distal pocket by replacing Leu(B10) and Val(E11) with aromatic amino acids markedly inhibits NO-induced oxidation of MbO2. The latter results provide a protein engineering strategy for reducing hypertensive events caused by extracellular hemoglobin-based O2 carriers. This approach has been explored by examining the effects of Phe(B10) and Phe(E11) substitutions on the rates of NO-induced oxidation of the alpha and beta subunits in recombinant human hemoglobin.Biochemistry 07/1996; 35(22):6976-83. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as an important cytotoxic and cytostatic effector for a number of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. When the microbicidal effect of NO occurs, the NO-mediated S-nitrosylation of cysteine containing proteins (e.g., cysteine proteases) appears to be a common and widespread mechanism. This overview concerns parasitic cysteine proteases as NO targets, providing molecular bases for the parasiticidal effect of NO.International Journal of Molecular Medicine 03/2002; 9(2):131-4. · 1.96 Impact Factor