Structural determinants of ligand migration in Mycobacterium tuberculosis truncated hemoglobin O
Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física/INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, Buenos Aires, Argentina.Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics (Impact Factor: 2.63). 11/2008; 73(2):372-9. DOI: 10.1002/prot.22072
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of human tuberculosis, one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world. Its genome hosts the glbN and glbO genes coding for two proteins, truncated hemoglobin N (trHbN) and truncated hemoglobin O (trHbO), that belong to different groups (I and II, respectively) of the recently discovered trHb family of hemeproteins. The different expression pattern and kinetics rates constants for ligand association and NO oxidation rate suggest different functions for these proteins. Previous experimental and theoretical studies showed that, in trHbs, ligand migration along the internal tunnel cavity system is a key issue in determining the ligand-binding characteristics. The X-ray structure of trHbO has been solved and shows several internal cavities and secondary-docking sites. In this work, we present an extensive investigation of the tunnel/cavity system ofM. tuberculosis trHbO by means of computer-simulation techniques. We have computed the free-energy profiles for ligand migration along three found tunnels in the oxy and deoxy w.t. and mutant trHbO proteins. Our results show that multiple-ligand migration paths are possible and that several conserved residues such as TrpG8 play a key role in the ligand-migration regulation.
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ABSTRACT: Resonance Raman studies show that the heme-bound CO in trHbO, a truncated-II hemoglobin from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is exposed to an environment with a positive electrostatic potential. The mutation of Trp(G8), an absolutely conserved residue in group II and III truncated hemoglobins, to Phe introduces two new Fe-CO conformers, both of which exhibit reduced electrostatic potentials. Computer simulations reveal that the structural perturbation is a result of the increased flexibility of the Tyr(CD1) and Leu(E11) side chains due to the reduction of the size of the G8 residue. Laser flash photolysis studies show that the G8 mutation induces 1) the presence of two new geminate recombination phases, one with a rate faster than the time resolution of our instrument and the other with a rate 13-fold slower than that of the wild type protein, and 2) the reduction of the total geminate recombination yield from 86 to 62% and the increase in the bimolecular recombination rate by a factor of 530. Computer simulations uncover that the photodissociated ligand migrates between three distal temporary docking sites before it subsequently rebinds to the heme iron or ultimately escapes into the solvent via a hydrophobic tunnel. The calculated energy profiles associated with the ligand migration processes are in good agreement with the experimental observations. The results highlight the importance of the Trp(G8) in regulating ligand migration in trHbO, underscoring its pivotal role in the structural and functional properties of the group II and III truncated hemoglobins.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2008; 284(5):3106-16. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M806183200 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extradiol dioxygenases are characterized by activating dioxygen and incorporating both oxygen atoms into their substrates. Both experimental and theoretical investigations have been focused on the detection of intermediates in the reaction cycle in order to develop a general chemical mechanism of O(2) activation and insertion. However, little is known about the mechanism of how O(2) reaches the reaction sites of the related enzymes, which raises the question whether the rate of catalysis is limited by O(2) access to the active site. In this paper, two locally enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations were performed to determine the potential O(2) pathways inside a recently solved X-ray structure of homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase. It is found that nominally identical subunits of the single homotetrameric structure contain distinct O(2) affinity diffusion pathways, which partly correlates with the observation of the simultaneous presence of three different reaction intermediates in four independent active sites. Residues that are critical for O(2) diffusion are also examined and discussed. In particular, we find that the breathing motion of the internal cavity defined by these residues results in O(2) migration process.The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 09/2009; 113(41):13596-603. DOI:10.1021/jp902597t · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Truncated hemoglobins (trHbs) are heme proteins present in bacteria, unicellular eukaryotes, and higher plants. Their tertiary structure consists in a 2-over-2 helical sandwich, which display typically an inner tunnel/cavity system for ligand migration and/or storage. The microorganism Bacillus subtilis contains a peculiar trHb, which does not show an evident tunnel/cavity system connecting the protein active site with the solvent, and exhibits anyway a very high oxygen association rate. Moreover, resonant Raman results of CO bound protein, showed that a complex hydrogen bond network exists in the distal cavity, making it difficult to assign unambiguously the residues involved in the stabilization of the bound ligand. To understand these experimental results with atomistic detail, we performed classical molecular dynamics simulations of the oxy, carboxy, and deoxy proteins. The free energy profiles for ligand migration suggest that there is a key residue, GlnE11, that presents an alternate conformation, in which a wide ligand migration tunnel is formed, consistently with the kinetic data. This tunnel is topologically related to the one found in group I trHbs. On the other hand, the results for the CO and O(2) bound protein show that GlnE11 is directly involved in the stabilization of the cordinated ligand, playing a similar role as TyrB10 and TrpG8 in other trHbs. Our results not only reconcile the structural data with the kinetic information, but also provide additional insight into the general behaviour of trHbs. Proteins 2010. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 03/2010; 78(4):962-70. DOI:10.1002/prot.22620 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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