Completion of premaintenance phases in total therapies 2 and 3 improves clinical outcomes in multiple myeloma: an important variable to be considered in clinical trial designs.

Myeloma Institute for Research and Therapy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA.
Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.9). 07/2008; 112(12):2720-5. DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23487
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Total Therapy (TT) programs are complex and their execution over the course of several years is fraught with patient attrition due to failure and toxicity of therapy and patient/physician acceptance.
The impact of completion versus noncompletion of intended treatment steps was examined in protocols TT2 (n=668) and TT3 (n=303) on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS).
By using appropriate landmarks of 36 months with TT2 and 18 months with TT3, representing the maxima to completion of premaintenance phases, postconsolidation OS was superior for 211 patients completing versus 311 patients not completing premaintenance steps on TT2 (P=.001), which also pertained to the 161 patients completing versus 47 not completing intended treatment steps on TT3 (P=.01). On multivariate analysis that included all patients, completion of therapy independently favored longer OS and EFS in the context of both standard prognostic factors and gene expression profiling-defined risk; in addition, TT3 prolonged EFS over results obtained with TT2.
1) Completion of intended therapy was a significant independent variable conferring superior OS and EFS in TT programs; and 2) after adjusting for completion of therapy, EFS was still superior with TT3 versus TT2, supporting the beneficial role of bortezomib included in TT3. Collectively, these data point to the importance of designing clinical trials that balance the treatment requirements for disease control with host acceptance and tolerance.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is receiving increasing interest particularly due to its potential ability to enter clinical routine. Rapid advances in the CSC field have provided evidence for the development of more reliable anticancer therapies in the future. CSCs typically only constitute a small fraction of the total tumor burden; however, they harbor self-renewal capacity and appear to be relatively resistant to conventional therapies. Recent therapeutic approaches aim to eliminate or differentiate CSCs or to disrupt the niches in which they reside. Better understanding of the biological characteristics of CSCs as well as improved preclinical and clinical trials targeting CSCs may revolutionize the treatment of many cancers.
    European Surgical Research 07/2012; 49(1):8-15. DOI:10.1159/000339610 · 1.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bortezomib is the first therapeutic inhibitor of the proteasome that has demonstrated a significant clinical response in patients with otherwise refractory or rapidly advancing disease. Bortezomib has received US Federal Drug Administration approval for the treatment of the hematologic malignancies such as multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Herein, the use of bortezomib as an upfront therapy, as an induction regimen before stem-cell transplantation and as maintenance therapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma is discussed.
    American journal of therapeutics 01/2011; 19(2):133-44. DOI:10.1097/MJT.0b013e3181ff7a9e · 1.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumor-bone marrow microenvironment interactions in multiple myeloma (MM) are documented to play crucial roles in plasma-cell growth/survival. In vitro coculture of MM cells with osteoclasts supported cell survival and significantly down-regulated JUN expression. JUN expression in myeloma cells from late-stage and high-risk MM was significantly lower than in plasma cells from healthy donors, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering MM, and low-risk MM; patients with low-JUN-expressing MM cells had earlier disease-related deaths. JUN overexpression in MM cells induced cell death and growth inhibition and up-regulated expression of early growth response protein 1 (EGR-1), whose low expression also carried unfavorable clinical implications. EGR-1 knockdown in MM cells abrogated JUN overexpression-induced MM cell death and growth inhibition, indicating that EGR-1 acts directly downstream of JUN. JUN modulates myeloma cell apoptosis through interacting with EGR-1, which down-regulates Survivin and triggers caspase signaling. Importantly, high JUN or EGR-1 expression was associated with improved outcome in Total Therapy 3, in which bortezomib is given throughout therapy, versus Total Therapy 2, in which bortezomib is given only at relapse. Consistently, JUN or EGR-1 knockdown in cultured MM cells enhanced their resistance to bortezomib, demonstrating the crucial role of low JUN/EGR-1 expression in MM resistance to bortezomib.
    Blood 01/2010; 115(1):61-70. DOI:10.1182/blood-2009-03-210526 · 9.78 Impact Factor