Cancer risk in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus in the United States

Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.01). 07/2008; 123(1):187-94. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.23487
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Data are limited regarding cancer risk in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with modest immunosuppression, before the onset of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). For some cancers, risk may be affected by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) widely available since 1996. We linked HIV/AIDS and cancer registries in Colorado, Florida and New Jersey. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) compared cancer risk in HIV-infected persons (initially AIDS-free) during the 5-year period after registration with the general population. Poisson regression was used to compare incidence across subgroups, adjusting for demographic factors. Among 57,350 HIV-infected persons registered during 1991-2002 (median CD4 count 491 cells/mm(3)), 871 cancers occurred during follow-up. Risk was elevated for Kaposi sarcoma (KS, SIR 1,300 [n = 173 cases]), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, 7.3 [n = 203]), cervical cancer (2.9 [n = 28]) and several non-AIDS-defining malignancies, including Hodgkin lymphoma (5.6 [n = 36]) and cancers of the lung (2.6 [n = 109]) and liver (2.7 [n = 14]). KS and NHL incidence declined over time but nonetheless remained elevated in 1996-2002. Incidence increased in 1996-2002 compared to 1991-1995 for Hodgkin lymphoma (relative risk 2.7, 95%CI 1.0-7.1) and liver cancer (relative risk infinite, one-sided 95%CI 1.1-infinity). Non-AIDS-defining cancers comprised 31.4% of cancers in 1991-1995, versus 58.0% in 1996-2002. For KS and NHL, risk was inversely related to CD4 count, but these associations attenuated after 1996. We conclude that KS and NHL incidence declined markedly in recent years, likely reflecting HAART-related improvements in immunity, while incidence of some non-AIDS-defining cancers increased. These trends have led to a shift in the spectrum of cancer among HIV-infected persons.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With successful antiretroviral therapy, non-communicable diseases, including malignancies, are increasingly contributing to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected persons. The epidemiology of AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) in HIV-infected populations in Brazil has not been well described. It is not known if cancer trends in HIV-infected populations in Brazil are similar to those of other countries where antiretroviral therapy is also widely available. We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical cohorts at Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas (INI) in Rio de Janeiro and Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic (VCCC) in Nashville from 1998 to 2010. We used Poisson regression and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to examine incidence trends. Clinical and demographic predictors of ADCs and NADCs were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. This study included 2,925 patients at INI and 3,927 patients at VCCC. There were 57 ADCs at INI (65% Kaposi sarcoma), 47 at VCCC (40% Kaposi sarcoma), 45 NADCs at INI, and 82 at VCCC. From 1998 to 2004, incidence of ADCs remained statistically unchanged at both sites. From 2005 to 2010, ADC incidence decreased in both cohorts (INI incidence rate ratio per year = 0.74, p < 0.01; VCCC = 0.75, p < 0.01). Overall Kaposi sarcoma incidence was greater at INI than VCCC (3.0 vs. 1.2 cases per 1,000 person-years, p < 0.01). Incidence of NADCs remained constant throughout the study period (overall INI incidence 3.6 per 1,000 person-years and VCCC incidence 5.3 per 1,000 person-years). Compared to general populations, overall risk of NADCs was increased at both sites (INI SIR = 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.9] and VCCC SIR = 1.3 [1.0-1.7]). After non-melanoma skin cancers, the most frequent NADCs were anal cancer at INI (n = 7) and lung cancer at VCCC (n = 11). In multivariate models, risk of ADC was associated with male sex and immunosuppression. Risk of NADC was associated with increased age. In both cohorts, ADCs have decreased over time, though incidence of KS was higher at INI than VCCC. Rates of NADCs remained constant over time at both sites.
    Infectious Agents and Cancer 01/2015; 10:4. DOI:10.1186/1750-9378-10-4 · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Little is known about survival and factors associated with mortality after cancer diagnosis among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Using Poisson regression, we analyzed incidence rates of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining cancers (ADC), non-AIDS-defining infection-related cancers (NADCI), and non-AIDS-defining noninfection-related cancers (NADCNI) among HIV Outpatient Study participants seen at least twice from 1996-2010. All-cause mortality within each cancer category and by calendar period (1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010) were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival methods and log-rank tests. We identified risk factors for all-cause mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Among 8350 patients, 627 were diagnosed with 664 cancers. Over the 3 time periods, the age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates for ADC and NADCNI declined (both P < .001) and for NADCI did not change (P = .13). Five-year survival differed by cancer category (ADC, 54.5%; NADCI, 65.8%; NADCNI, 65.9%; P = .018), as did median CD4 cell count (107, 241, and 420 cells/mm(3); P < .001) and median log10 viral load (4.1, 2.3, and 2.0 copies/mL; P < .001) at cancer diagnosis, respectively. Factors independently associated with increased mortality for ADC were lower nadir CD4 cell count (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-6.59) and detectable viral load (≥400 copies/mL; HR = 1.72 [95% CI, 1.01-2.94]) and for NADCNI, age (HR = 1.50 [95% CI, 1.16-1.94]), non-Hispanic black race (HR = 1.92 [95% CI, 1.15-3.24]), lower nadir CD4 cell count (HR = 1.77 [95% CI, 1.07-2.94]), detectable viral load (HR = 1.96 [95% CI, 1.18-3.24]), and current or prior tobacco use (HR = 3.18 [95% CI, 1.77-5.74]). Since 1996, ADC and NADCNI incidence rates have declined. Survival after cancer diagnosis has increased with concomitant increases in CD4 cell count in recent years. Advances in HIV therapy, including early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy, may help reduce mortality risk among HIV-infected persons with cancer.
    03/2014; 1(1):ofu012. DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofu012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Washington, DC (DC), has among the highest AIDS prevalence and cancer incidence in the USA. This study compared cancer diagnoses and survival among AIDS cases with AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) to those with non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) in DC from 1996 to 2006. Survival by cancer type and time period was also examined for 300 individuals diagnosed with AIDS who developed cancer; 49% of AIDS cases developed an ADC. ADC cases were younger at both AIDS and cancer diagnosis and had significantly lower median CD4 counts at AIDS diagnosis than NADC cases. The most frequent cancers were non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; 44% of ADC), Kaposi's sarcoma (40% of ADC), and lung cancer (20% of NADC). There was no significant difference in distribution of cancers when comparing ADCs to NADCs, or over time (1996-2001 vs. 2002-2006). Survival among NHL, oral cavity, and lung cancer cases was 0.4, 0.8, and 0.3 years, respectively; the risk of death was approximately two times higher for each of these cancers when compared to other cancers. Given the high burden of cancer and HIV in DC, early highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation, routine cancer screening, and risk reduction through behavioral modification should be emphasized to prevent cancer among HIV-infected persons.


1 Download
Available from