Role of primary tumor characteristics in predicting positive sentinel lymph nodes in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or microinvasive breast cancer.
ABSTRACT We determined the incidence of positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or microinvasive breast cancer (MIC) and the predictive factors of SLN metastasis in these patients.
Of 4,503 patients who underwent SLN dissection between March 1994 and March 2006 at our institution, we identified those with a preoperative diagnosis or final diagnosis of DCIS or MIC. Clinicopathologic factors were examined by logistic regression analysis.
Of the 624 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of DCIS or MIC, 40 had positive SLNs (6.4%). Of the 475 patients with a final diagnosis of DCIS or MIC, 9 had positive SLNs (1.9%). Clinical DCIS size >5 cm was the only independent predictor of positive SLN for patients with a preoperative diagnosis and patients with a final diagnosis of DCIS or MIC. Core biopsy as the method of preoperative diagnosis and DCIS size >5 cm were independent predictors for a final diagnosis of invasive carcinoma in the 149 patients who had a preoperative diagnosis of DCIS or MIC.
SLN dissection for patients with a diagnosis of DCIS should be limited to patients who are planned for mastectomy or who have DCIS size >5 cm. Patients who have a core-needle biopsy diagnosis of DCIS have a higher risk of invasive breast cancer on final pathologic assessment of the primary tumor. This information can be used in preoperative counseling of patients with DCIS regarding the timing of SLN biopsy.
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ABSTRACT: Axillary lymph node status is the strongest prognostic indicator of survival for women with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is required in patients with an initial diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). A retrospective analysis was performed of 78 patients with an initial diagnosis of DCIS between December 2002 and April 2010 and who proceeded to have either SLNB or axillary node dissection performed as part of their primary surgical procedure. The study focused on the rates of axillary node metastasis and the underestimation of invasive carcinoma at an initial diagnosis. Forty-eight patients underwent SLNB and 18 patients underwent axillary node dissection. Only 1 of 66 patients (1.5%) had a positive sentinel lymph node. After definite surgery, the final diagnosis was changed to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in 12 patients and DCIS with microinvasion in 2 patients; 14 of 78 patients (17.9%) were therefore underestimated at preoperative histological examinations. In 35 patients who were diagnosed DCIS by core needle biopsy (CNB), 13 patients (37.1%) were upstaged into IDC or DCIS with microinvasion in the final diagnosis. The statistically significant factors predictive of invasive breast cancer were a large tumor size and HER2 overexpression. The rates of SLNB positivity in pure DCIS are very low, and there is continuing uncertainty about its clinical importance. However in view of the high rate of underestimation of invasive carcinoma in patients with an initial diagnosis of DCIS, SLNB appears to be appropriate in these patients, especially in the case when DCIS is diagnosed by a core needle biopsy. In patients with an initial diagnosis of DCIS by CNB, SLNB should be considered as part of the primary surgical procedure, when preoperative variables show a tumor larger than 2.35 cm and with HER2 overexpression.Journal of breast cancer. 12/2011; 14(4):301-7.
Article: Expression and role of fibroblast activation protein-alpha in microinvasive breast carcinoma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in breast cancer cases is challenging for pathologist due to a variety of in situ patterns and artefacts, which could be misinterpreted as stromal invasion. Microinvasion is detected by the presence of cytologically malignant cells outside the confines of the basement membrane and myoepithelium. When malignant cells invade the stroma, there is tissue remodeling induced by perturbed stromal-epithelial interactions. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are main cells in the microenvironment of the remodeled tumor-host interface. They are characterized by the expression of the specific fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP-α), and differ from that of normal fibroblasts exhibiting an immunophenotype of CD34. We hypothesized that staining for FAP-α may be helpful in determining whether DCIS has microinvasion. 349 excised breast specimens were immunostained for smooth muscle actin SMA, CD34, FAP-α, and Calponin. Study material was divided into 5 groups: group 1: normal mammary tissues of healthy women after plastic surgery; group 2: usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH); group 3: DCIS without microinvasion on H & E stain; group 4: DCIS with microinvasion on H & E stain (DCIS-MI), and group 5: invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). A comparative evaluation of the four immunostains was conducted. Our results demonstrated that using FAP-α and Calponin adjunctively improved the sensitivity of pathological diagnosis of DCIS-MI by 11.29%, whereas the adjunctive use of FAP-α and Calponin improved the sensitivity of pathological diagnosis of DCIS by 13.6%. This study provides the first evidence that immunostaining with FAP-α and Calponin can serve as a novel marker for pathologically diagnosing whether DCIS has microinvasion.Diagnostic Pathology 11/2011; 6:111. · 1.64 Impact Factor