Severity of chronic kidney disease as a risk factor for operative mortality in nonemergent patients in the California coronary artery bypass graft surgery outcomes reporting program.
ABSTRACT Guidelines published by the National Kidney Foundation in 2002 categorize renal failure into 5 stages of increasing severity. The relation of this classification to risk stratification for operative mortality in patients with nonemergent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has not been clarified. We examined the effect of chronic kidney disease (CKD) severity on CABG operative mortality in patients with nonemergent CABG. Data reporting to the California CABG outcomes reporting program is mandated in California. Data from 121 hospitals on patients undergoing CABG in 2003 and 2004 were analyzed, including clinical characteristics, CKD stage, and operative mortality. CKD stage 1 and 2 were combined to form the reference group because data on urinary markers of renal failure were not available. Excluding patients with emergent or salvage acuity for CABG, 37,735 isolated CABGs were performed. Of these, 27,132 patients (71.9%) had glomerular filtration rate (GFR)>or=60 ml/min/1.73 m2; 8,861 (23.5%) had stage 3 CKD (GFR 30 to 59); 669 (1.8%) had stage 4 CKD (GFR 15 to 29); and 1,073 (2.8%) had stage 5 CKD (GFR<15 or on dialysis). In separate multivariate analyses, GFR and CKD stage were each significantly and independently associated with operative mortality (both p<0.0001). Operative mortality increased significantly with each stage of CKD (all p<0.01). Compared with the reference group, stage 3, (odds ratio [OR] 1.18, p=0.0374), stage 4 (OR 2.23, p<0.0001), and stage 5 (OR 4.39, p<0.0001) had increasingly higher operative mortality. In conclusion, CKD stage based on National Kidney Foundation guidelines is an important predictor in risk stratification for operative mortality in patients undergoing nonemergent CABG.
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ABSTRACT: To relate morbidity and mortality risk to preoperative severity of illness in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Retrospective analysis of 5051 patients using univariate and logistic regression to identify risk factors associated with perioperative morbidity and mortality. Prospective application of models to a subsequent 2-year validation cohort (n = 4069). Cleveland Clinic Foundation. All adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery between July 1, 1986, and June 30, 1988 (reference group), and July 1, 1988, and June 30, 1990 (validation group). Mortality and morbidity (myocardial infarction and use of intra-aortic balloon pump, mechanical ventilation for 3 or more days, neurological deficit, oliguric or anuric renal failure, or serious infection). Emergency procedure, preoperative serum creatinine levels of greater than 168 mumol/L, severe left ventricular dysfunction, preoperative hematocrit of 0.34, increasing age, chronic pulmonary disease, prior vascular surgery, reoperation, and mitral valve insufficiency were found to be predictive of mortality. In addition to these factors, diabetes mellitus, body weight of 65 kg or less [corrected], aortic stenosis, and cerebrovascular disease were predictive of morbidity. Logistic regression equations were developed, and a simple additive score for clinical use was designed by allocating each of these risk-factor values of 1 to 6 points. Both methods predict mortality. Increased morbidity was demonstrated with increases in score. The logistic or clinical models developed are superior to the currently available methods for comparing mortality outcome and provide previously unavailable information on morbidity based on preoperative status. The clinical scoring system is useful for preoperative estimates of morbidity and mortality risks.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 06/1992; 267(17):2344-8. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence and prognosis of a moderate increase in serum creatinine early after cardiac surgery. Retrospective clinical study. Surgical intensive care unit in a university hospital. Five hundred and ninety-one consecutive adult patients operated on for cardiac surgery during 1 year. Plasma creatinine was measured systematically before and during the first 3 days after surgery. Comorbid events were assessed as organ dysfunction (cardiac, pulmonary, hematologic, and neurologic), allowing us to calculate for each patient a dysfunction score (0-5). Postoperative plasma creatinine increased by > or =20% in 15.6% of patients; eight of these required dialysis. A 20% increase in plasma creatinine was associated with other organ dysfunction in 79.3% of patients. Overall mortality rate was 2.7% and increased with the dysfunction score (17.7% for a dysfunction score > or =3). Mortality rate was 12.0% for patients who had 20% increased plasma creatinine with other organ dysfunction but was 0% for patients without other organ dysfunction. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the most important prognostic factors of death were cardiac dysfunction (odds ratio, 8.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-32.5) and the association of renal dysfunction and hematologic dysfunction (odds ratio = 12.0; 95% confidence interval, 3.9-37.2). Mean intensive care unit stay of patients with increased plasma creatinine was significantly longer (8.1 +/- 5.6 vs. 4.3 +/- 1.4 days, p <.01) and increased significantly with the dysfunction score (p <.01). Patients with isolated increased plasma creatinine had a significantly longer stay in the intensive care unit than patients without any organ dysfunction (4.6 +/- 1.4 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.9, p <.01). Our results suggest that a postoperative 20% increase in plasma creatinine after cardiac surgery is not rare and has a significant impact on postoperative outcome, mainly when multiple organ dysfunction occurs. Any preoperative reduced renal reserve or perioperative renal ischemia increases the renal risk.Critical Care Medicine 07/2002; 30(7):1495-8. · 6.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: More than 600,000 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures are done annually in the United States. Some data indicate that 10 to 20% of patients who are undergoing a CABG procedure have a serum creatinine of more than 1.5 mg/dl. There are few data on the impact of a mild increase in serum creatinine concentration on CABG outcome. We analyzed a Veterans Affairs database obtained prospectively from 1992 through 1996 at 14 of 43 centers performing heart surgery. We compared the outcome after CABG in patients with a baseline serum creatinine of less than 1.5 mg/dl (median 1.1 mg/dl, N = 3271) to patients with a baseline serum creatinine of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dl (median 1.7, N = 631). Univariate analysis revealed that patients with a serum creatinine of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dl had a higher 30-day mortality (7% vs. 3%, P < 0.001) requirement for prolonged mechanical ventilation (15% vs. 8%, P = 0.001), stroke (7% vs. 2%, P < 0.001), renal failure requiring dialysis at discharge (3% vs. 1%, P < 0.001), and bleeding complications (8% vs. 3%, P < 0.001) than patients with a baseline serum creatinine of less than 1.5 mg/dl. Multiple logistic regression analyses found that patients with a baseline serum creatinine of less than 1.5 mg/dl had significantly lower (P < 0.02) 30-day mortality and postoperative bleeding and ventilatory complications than patients with a serum creatinine of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dl when controlling for all other variables. These results demonstrate that mild renal failure is an independent risk factor for adverse outcome after CABG.Kidney International 04/1999; 55(3):1057-62. · 7.92 Impact Factor