Predicted risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease in patients with schizophrenia: aripiprazole versus standard of care.
ABSTRACT Patients with schizophrenia are at increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, some atypical antipsychotics are associated with metabolic disturbances, which augment the risk for these comorbid conditions. In clinical trials, effects on metabolic parameters with aripiprazole are similar to those with placebo and superior to those with olanzapine, and the Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole (STAR) demonstrated comparable efficacy of aripiprazole versus standard of care (SoC; physicians' selection of quetiapine, olanzapine, or risperidone).
In this post hoc analysis, data from STAR were used to assess the risks of diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with schizophrenia. The Stern (San Antonio Heart Disease Study) and Framingham models, with modifications, were used to predict the risk of diabetes at 7.5 years and CHD at 10 years, respectively.
Aripiprazole-treated patients had more favorable changes in lipids, glucose, and body weight versus SoC. In a subsample of patients who had fasting lipid and glucose test results, the Stern model predicted 23.4 fewer incidences of new-onset diabetes with aripiprazole versus SoC in a hypothetical 1000-patient cohort. The number needed to treat with aripiprazole to avoid 1 adverse outcome expected with SoC was 43. In the same population, the Framingham model predicted 3.9 fewer CHD events, with a number needed to treat with aripiprazole of 256.
Aripiprazole-treated patients had more favorable changes in metabolic parameters compared with SoC, leading to a reduced risk of diabetes and CHD, based on validated models.
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ABSTRACT: Antipsychotics (AP) induce weight gain. However, reviews and meta-analyses generally are restricted to second generation antipsychotics (SGA) and do not stratify for duration of AP use. It is hypothesised that patients gain more weight if duration of AP use is longer. A meta-analysis was conducted of clinical trials of AP that reported weight change. Outcome measures were body weight change, change in BMI and clinically relevant weight change (7% weight gain or loss). Duration of AP-use was stratified as follows: ≤6 weeks, 6-16 weeks, 16-38 weeks and >38 weeks. Forest plots stratified by AP as well as by duration of use were generated and results were summarised in figures. 307 articles met inclusion criteria. The majority were AP switch studies. Almost all AP showed a degree of weight gain after prolonged use, except for amisulpride, aripiprazole and ziprasidone, for which prolonged exposure resulted in negligible weight change. The level of weight gain per AP varied from discrete to severe. Contrary to expectations, switch of AP did not result in weight loss for amisulpride, aripiprazole or ziprasidone. In AP-naive patients, weight gain was much more pronounced for all AP. Given prolonged exposure, virtually all AP are associated with weight gain. The rational of switching AP to achieve weight reduction may be overrated. In AP-naive patients, weight gain is more pronounced.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94112. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094112 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyse prescription refill, re-hospitalisation, total mortality, mortality because of suicide and attempted suicide among patients who were taking various types of antipsychotics. A population-based cohort study analysed all patients (n=26 046) in Sweden who had been treated for schizophrenia from 2006 to 2009 with regard to re-hospitalisation and prescription refill for various types of antipsychotic treatment. A case-control study nested within the cohort analysed all-cause mortality, mortality because of suicide and attempted suicide in relation to antipsychotic use. The study adjusted for history of hospitalisation for psychiatric and medical care, attempted suicide and use of antidepressants. Aripiprazole users were the only ones who showed significantly lower all-cause risks of death, but so few events occurred among users of this relatively new drug that the results should be interpreted with caution. Clozapine users showed lower odds of death by suicide (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45 [95%CI 0.20-0.98]) and of attempted suicide (OR = 0.44 [0.28-0.70]) than haloperidol users after adjustment for age, sex and year of discharge. Olanzapine users showed approximately the same favourable pattern. Patients who used clozapine were most likely to refill prescriptions and had lower rates of re-hospitalisation. Only one death and 23 cases of agranulocytosis were reported compared with 223 suicides and 831 suicide attempts. An etiologic fraction calculation suggests that the use of clozapine rather than traditional drugs could have prevented 95 suicide attempts during the period. Clozapine and olanzapine reduce the risk of suicide, attempted suicide and re-hospitalisation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 03/2014; 23(3). DOI:10.1002/pds.3567 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & HYPOTHESIS: Schizophrenia is associated with increased mortality rates, which has been attributed to the greater incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The Framingham risk score (FRS) is a widely-used age- and gender-specific algorithm to estimate 10-year CVD risk and vascular age. The main aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular risk profile in schizophrenia and examine the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a predictor of CVD risk. We hypothesized that patients with schizophrenia have an increased 10-year CVD risk. METHODS: 83 Chinese patients with schizophrenia and 243 Chinese community controls were recruited. Their medical and smoking histories were obtained, and anthropometric parameters measured. All subjects provided fasted venous blood samples for lipid and glucose measurements. 10-year CVD risk and the difference between vascular and actual age (VAdiff) for each participant were computed using the FRS and compared between patients and controls. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients had a higher mean 10-year CVD risk of 4.6%, as compared with 3.1% in controls, and a greater VAdiff of 4.6years vs. 0.6years. Both smoking and MetS contributed significantly to the 10-year CVD risk in patients with schizophrenia, with smoking having a greater effect than MetS on this risk. CONCLUSION: This study found a significantly elevated mean 10-year CVD risk and VAdiff in patients with schizophrenia compared with controls. Findings point towards the importance of smoking cessation and screening for MetS to decrease the excess CVD risk in patients with schizophrenia.Schizophrenia Research 04/2013; 147(1). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2013.03.023 · 4.43 Impact Factor