Neonatal diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT An explosion of work over the last decade has produced insight into the multiple hereditary causes of a nonimmunological form of diabetes diagnosed most frequently within the first 6 months of life. These studies are providing increased understanding of genes involved in the entire chain of steps that control glucose homeostasis. Neonatal diabetes is now understood to arise from mutations in genes that play critical roles in the development of the pancreas, of beta-cell apoptosis and insulin processing, as well as the regulation of insulin release. For the basic researcher, this work is providing novel tools to explore fundamental molecular and cellular processes. For the clinician, these studies underscore the need to identify the genetic cause underlying each case. It is increasingly clear that the prognosis, therapeutic approach, and genetic counseling a physician provides must be tailored to a specific gene in order to provide the best medical care.
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes the methodology, results and limitations of the 2013 International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Atlas (6th edition) estimates of the worldwide numbers of prevalent cases of type 1 diabetes in children (<15 years). The majority of relevant information in the published literature is in the form of incidence rates derived from registers of newly diagnosed cases. Studies were graded on quality criteria and, if no information was available in the published literature, extrapolation was used to assign a country the rate from an adjacent country with similar characteristics. Prevalence rates were then derived from these incidence rates and applied to United Nations 2012 Revision population estimates for 2013 for each country to obtain estimates of the number of prevalent cases. Data availability was highest for the countries in Europe (76%) and lowest for the countries in sub-Saharan Africa (8%). The prevalence estimates indicate that there are almost 500,000 children aged under 15 years with type 1 diabetes worldwide, the largest numbers being in Europe (129,000) and North America (108,700). Countries with the highest estimated numbers of new cases annually were the United States (13,000), India (10,900) and Brazil (5000). Compared with the prevalence estimates made in previous editions of the IDF Diabetes Atlas, the numbers have increased in most of the IDF Regions, often reflecting the incidence rate increases that have been well-documented in many countries. Monogenic diabetes is increasingly being recognised among those with clinical features of type 1 or type 2 diabetes as genetic studies become available, but population-based data on incidence and prevalence show wide variation due to lack of standardisation in the studies. Similarly, studies on type 2 diabetes in childhood suggest increased incidence and prevalence in many countries, especially in Indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities, but detailed population-based studies remain limited.Diabetes research and clinical practice 12/2013; 103(2). DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2013.11.005 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Activating mutations in different domains of the ABCC8 gene-coded sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) cause neonatal diabetes. Here we show that a diabetogenic mutation in an unexplored helix preceding the ABC core of SUR1 dramatically increases open probability of (SUR1/Kir6.2)(4) channel (KATP) by reciprocally changing rates of its transitions to and from the long-lived, inhibitory ligand-stabilized closed state. This kinetic mechanism attenuates ATP and sulfonylurea inhibition, but not Mg-nucleotide stimulation, of SUR1/Kir6.2. The results suggest a key role for L0 helix in KATP gating and together with previous findings from mutant KATP clarify why many patients with neonatal diabetes require high doses of sulfonylureas.FEBS letters 11/2011; 585(22):3555-9. DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2011.10.020 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The most common monogenic cause of neonatal diabetes is mutation in KCNJ11, which encodes a potassium channel in pancreatic beta cells. Some mutations in this gene, including Q52R, have been described in association with neurological deficits, but never with hepatic involvement. We report the second case of neonatal diabetes in a patient with a KCNJ11/Q52R mutation. This patient's clinical course did not include obvious neurological deficits despite the presence of prematurity, but did include transient hyperbilirubinemia, and recurrent hypoglycemia. The phenotypic spectrum of KCNJ11 mutations is variable and is likely influenced by additional genetic and environmental factors.International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 10/2009; 2009:453240. DOI:10.1155/2009/453240