Neonatal diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT An explosion of work over the last decade has produced insight into the multiple hereditary causes of a nonimmunological form of diabetes diagnosed most frequently within the first 6 months of life. These studies are providing increased understanding of genes involved in the entire chain of steps that control glucose homeostasis. Neonatal diabetes is now understood to arise from mutations in genes that play critical roles in the development of the pancreas, of beta-cell apoptosis and insulin processing, as well as the regulation of insulin release. For the basic researcher, this work is providing novel tools to explore fundamental molecular and cellular processes. For the clinician, these studies underscore the need to identify the genetic cause underlying each case. It is increasingly clear that the prognosis, therapeutic approach, and genetic counseling a physician provides must be tailored to a specific gene in order to provide the best medical care.
- SourceAvailable from: Sarah E Flanagan[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heterozygous activating mutations in KCNJ11, which encodes the Kir6.2 subunit of the pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel, cause both permanent and transient neonatal diabetes. A minority of patients also have neurological features. The identification of a KCNJ11 mutation has important therapeutic implications, as many patients can replace insulin injections with sulfonylurea tablets. We aimed to determine the age of presentation of patients with KCNJ11 mutations and to examine if there was a relationship between genotype and phenotype. KCNJ11 was sequenced in 239 unrelated patients from 21 countries, who were diagnosed with permanent diabetes before 2 years of age. Thirty-one of the 120 patients (26%) diagnosed in the first 26 weeks of life had a KCNJ11 mutation; no mutations were found in the 119 cases (0%) diagnosed after this age. Fourteen different heterozygous mutations were identified, with the majority resulting from de novo mutations. These include seven novel mutations: H46Y, R50Q, G53D C166Y, K170T, L164P and Y330S. All 11 probands with the most common mutation, R201H, had isolated diabetes. In contrast, developmental delay in addition to diabetes was seen in four of five probands with the V59M mutation and two of four with the R201C mutation. Five patients with developmental delay, epilepsy and neonatal diabetes (DEND) syndrome had unique mutations not associated with other phenotypes. KCNJ11 mutations are a common cause of permanent diabetes diagnosed in the first 6 months and all patients diagnosed in this age group should be tested. There is a strong genotype-phenotype relationship with the mutation being an important determinant of associated neurological features.Diabetologia 07/2006; 49(6):1190-7. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Initial management of neonatal diabetes mellitus consists of insulin and adequate calories for growth. Once a genetic diagnosis is made, most patients with neonatal diabetes caused by mutations in the KCNJ11 gene can be successfully managed with a sulfonylurea agent without the need for insulin. We report on the transition from insulin to glyburide (glibenclamide) therapy in a 4-month-old girl with neonatal diabetes mellitus caused by a mutation in KCNJ11. Dosing of glyburide three times daily was critical for her successful transition.Pediatric Diabetes 09/2007; 8(4):235-8. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels couple cell metabolism to electrical activity by regulating K+ flux across the plasma membrane. Channel closure is mediated by ATP, which binds to the pore-forming subunit (Kir6.2). Here we use homology modelling and ligand docking to construct a model of the Kir6.2 tetramer and identify the ATP-binding site. The model is consistent with a large amount of functional data and was further tested by mutagenesis. Ligand binding occurs at the interface between two subunits. The phosphate tail of ATP interacts with R201 and K185 in the C-terminus of one subunit, and with R50 in the N-terminus of another; the N6 atom of the adenine ring interacts with E179 and R301 in the same subunit. Mutation of residues lining the binding pocket reduced ATP-dependent channel inhibition. The model also suggests that interactions between the C-terminus of one subunit and the 'slide helix' of the adjacent subunit may be involved in ATP-dependent gating. Consistent with a role in gating, mutations in the slide helix bias the intrinsic channel conformation towards the open state.The EMBO Journal 02/2005; 24(2):229-39. · 9.82 Impact Factor