Radiation sensitivity of primary fibroblasts from hereditary retinoblastoma family members and some apparently normal controls: colony formation ability during continuous low-dose-rate gamma irradiation.
ABSTRACT We previously described an enhanced sensitivity for cell killing and G(1)-phase cell cycle arrest after acute gamma irradiation in primary fibroblast strains derived from 14 hereditary-type retinoblastoma family members (both affected RB1(+/-) probands and unaffected RB1(+/+) parents) as well as distinctive gene expression profiles in unirradiated cultures by microarray analyses. In the present study, we measured the colony formation ability of these cells after exposure to continuous low-dose-rate (0.5-8.4 cGy/h) (137)Cs gamma radiation for a 2-week growth period. Fibroblasts from all RB family members (irrespective of RB1 genotype) and from 5 of 18 apparently normal Coriell cell bank controls were significantly more radiosensitive than the remaining apparently normal controls. The average dose rates required to reduce relative survival to 10% and 1% were approximately 3.1 and 4.7 cGy/h for the Coriell control strains with normal radiosensitivity and approximately 1.4 and 2.5 cGy/h for the radiosensitive RB family member and remaining apparently normal Coriell control strains. The finding that a significant proportion of fibroblast strains derived from apparently normal individuals are sensitive to chronic low-dose-rate irradiation indicates such individuals may harbor hypomorphic genetic variants in genomic maintenance and/or DNA repair genes that may likewise predispose them or their children to cancer.
Article: [Retinoblastoma].Archivos argentinos de pediatría 06/2010; 108(3):255-7. DOI:10.1590/S0325-00752010000300018 · 0.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in the capacity to repair radiation damage is an important factor influencing both cellular and tissue radiosensitivity variation among individuals as well as dose rate effects associated with such damage. This paper consists of two parts. The first part reviews some of the available data relating to genetic components governing such variability among individuals in susceptibility to radiation damage relevant for radiation protection and discusses the possibility and extent to which these may also apply for space radiations. The second part focuses on the importance of dose rate effects and genetic-based variations that influence them. Very few dose rate effect studies have been carried out for the kinds of radiations encountered in space. The authors present here new data on the production of chromosomal aberrations in noncycling low passage human ATM+/+ or ATM+/- cells following irradiations with protons (50 MeV or 1 GeV), 1 GeV n iron ions and gamma rays, where doses were delivered at a high dose rate of 700 mGy min, or a lower dose rate of 5 mGy min. Dose responses were essentially linear over the dose ranges tested and not significantly different for the two cell strains. Values of the dose rate effectiveness factor (DREF) were expressed as the ratio of the slopes of the dose-response curves for the high versus the lower (5 mGy min) dose rate exposures. The authors refer to this as the DREF5. For the gamma ray standard, DREF5 values of approximately two were observed. Similar dose rate effects were seen for both energies of protons (DREF5 ∼ 2.2 in both cases). For 1 GeV n iron ions [linear energy transfer (LET) ∼ 150 keV μ], the DREF5 was not 1 as might have been expected on the basis of LET alone but was approximately 1.3. From these results and conditions, the authors estimate that the relative biological effectiveness for 1 GeV n iron ions for high and low dose rates, respectively, were about 10 and 15 rather than around 20 for low dose rates, as has been assumed by most recommendations from radiation protection organizations for charged particles of this LET. The authors suggest that similar studies using appropriate animal models of carcinogenesis would be valuable.Health physics 11/2012; 103(5):607-20. DOI:10.1097/HP.0b013e31826945b9 · 0.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Irradiation time and dose rate are important factors in the evaluation of radiation risk for human health. We previously proposed a novel dose-rate effect model, the modified exponential (MOE) model, which predicts that radiation risks decline exponentially as the dose rate decreases. Here we show that, during the early phase of exposure, up to 1000 h, the proliferation of cells continuously exposed to γ rays at a constant dose rate is gradually suppressed, even as the total dose increases. This trend holds for a number of cell lines including tumor cells, nontransformed fibroblasts and leukocytes. The accumulation of total dose by longer exposure times does not increase this suppressive effect even in cells with a defective DNA repair system, suggesting that risk is determined solely by dose rate in the later phase. The dose-rate effect in the early phase follows the MOE model in DNA repair-proficient cell lines, while cells with impaired DNA-PK or ATM show no dose-rate effect. In the later phase, however, a certain dose-rate effect is observed even in mutant cell lines, and suppression of cell proliferation no longer follows the MOE model. Our results suggest that a distinct mechanism that can operate in the absence of intact DNA-PK or ATM influences the dose-rate effect in the later phase of continuous radiation exposure.Radiation Research 10/2011; 176(4):447-58. DOI:10.2307/41318211 · 2.45 Impact Factor