Loss of 9p leads to p16INK4A down-regulation and enables RB/E2F1-dependent cell cycle promotion in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)

Department of Pathology, Georg August University, Göttingen, Germany.
The Journal of Pathology (Impact Factor: 7.43). 07/2008; 215(3):253-62. DOI: 10.1002/path.2352
Source: PubMed


Loss of chromosome 9p is a reliable predictor of malignant behaviour in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). p16INK4A located at 9p21 inhibits the CDK4/6/cyclin D complex from phosphorylating RB. Phosphorylation of RB through CDK4/6/cyclin D in early G(1) phase frees the transcription factor E2F1 from RB and enables mRNA transcription of genes essential for G(1)/S phase transition. This study aims to determine the impact of 9p loss on mRNA and protein expression of p16INK4A and further key cell cycle regulators in the different phases of the cell cycle. Sixty primary GISTs previously characterized for 9p loss by comparative genomic hybridization were analysed for mRNA expression of p16INK4A, p15INK4B, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D, p21CIP1p27KIP1, CDK2, cyclin E, cyclin B, RB and E2F1, using quantitative RT-PCR. The protein expression of CDK6, CDK2, p21CIP1, p27KIP1 and phosphorylated RB (S807/S811) was evaluated using protein arrays as a novel and highly sensitive platform for profiling of protein abundance and protein phosphorylation. In parallel, the nuclear percentages of immunohistochemical staining for p16INK4A, cyclin D, E2F1 and RB were quantified on a tissue microarray. GISTs with 9p loss had significantly higher proliferation rates, higher metastatic behaviour and shorter disease-free survival. On the molecular level, GISTs with 9p loss had a significantly reduced mRNA as well as nuclear protein expression of p16INK4A. RB was significantly more phosphorylated in these tumours, together with increased mRNA expression and nuclear staining for E2F1. Furthermore, GISTs with 9p loss had up-regulation of the late G1/S phase promoters CDK2 and cyclin E. We conclude that loss of 9p accompanied by early G1 phase inhibitor p16(INK4A) down-regulation in GISTs facilitates phosphorylation of RB, enabling E2F1-dependent transcription of genes essential for late G1/S phase transition. This study provides a possible basis for the accelerated proliferation and particularly malignant behaviour in GISTs with 9p loss.

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    • "A cluster, enriched in genes involved in angiogenesis (VEGFA, TEK, FLT1/3, CDH5, and PECAM1) was overall overexpressed in samples without KIT exon 11 mutation as expected (Imamura et al, 2007). Finally, a cluster of co-expressed genes represented a presumptive lost chromosomal region (9p loss cluster, of which 15% of genes are located on the 9p chromosomal arm); its expression was visually negatively correlated with that of the ‘proliferation cluster' and associated with worse RFS as previously reported (Schneider-Stock et al, 2005; Haller et al, 2008a). We tested the prognostic value of these five clusters computed as metagenes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Prognosis of localised gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is heterogeneous, notably for patients with AFIP intermediate or high risk of relapse, who are candidates to adjuvant imatinib. We hypothesised that gene expression profiles might improve the prognostication and help to refine the indications for imatinib. Methods: We collected gene expression and histoclinical data of 146 pre-treatment localised GIST samples treated with surgery alone. We searched for a gene expression signature (GES) predictive for relapse-free survival (RFS) and compared its performances to that of three published prognostic proliferation-based GES (Genomic Grade Index (GGI), 16-Kinase, and CINSARC) and AFIP classification. We also analysed a data set from 28 patients with advanced GIST treated with neo-adjuvant imatinib. Results: We identified a 275-gene GES (gene expression signature) predictive of RFS in a learning set and validated its robustness in an independent set. However, the GGI outperformed its prognostic performances, and those of the two other signatures and the AFIP intermediate-risk classification in two independent tests sets in uni- and multivariate analyses. Importantly, GGI could split the AFIP intermediate/high-risk samples into two groups with different RFS. Genomic Grade Index ‘high-risk' tumours were more proliferative and genetically unstable than ‘low-risk' tumours, and more sensitive to imatinib. Conclusion: GGI refines the prediction of RFS in localised GIST and might help tailor adjuvant imatinib.
    British Journal of Cancer 08/2012; 107(8):1433-41. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2012.390 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    • "Detailed characterization of several cell cycle regulators, particularly p16 INK4a (p16) have revealed an impact on pathogenesis [8] [9] [10] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]. However, the prognostic significance is still under debate [8,10,13-16,19-23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors feature a wide spectrum of biologic behavior, ranging from benign to extremely malignant. To determine the role of p16(INK4a) alteration in progression of gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach, we have investigated protein expression and gene methylation in correlation with clinicopathologic factors and survival. In addition to immunohistochemical analysis of p16(INK4a) in a series of 95 cases, real-time quantitative methylation specific polymerase chain reaction for p16(INK4a) and immunostaining for cyclin D1, cyclin E, pRb, DP-1, E2F-1, and Ki-67 were also evaluated in randomly selected samples. The p16(INK4a) labeling indices ranged from 0% to 74% (median, 21%), demonstrating a significant inverse correlation with size (P = .046). On univariate (P = .003) and multivariate (P = .067) analyses, loss of p16(INK4a) expression increased the likelihood of a poor tumor-related survival. In addition, size (P = .036) and the mitotic index (P = .005) had independent prognostic influence. The p16(INK4a) methylation index, which ranged from 0% to 100% (median, 17%), was significantly higher in larger tumors (P < .001) and in high-risk category lesions (P = .001) and inversely correlated with protein expression. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on expression of p16(INK4a) network members identified 2 clusters in 27 randomly selected tumor samples, containing 11 and 16 tumors each. Former cluster samples demonstrated higher risk category (P = .022), higher p16(INK4a) methylation (P < .001), and more reduced pRb expression (P < .018). In addition, p16(INK4a) network members clustered into 2 groups: (1) showing down-regulated p16(INK4a) protein and up-regulating of both cyclin D1 and DP-1 and (2) down-regulated pRb and up-regulated E2F-1. We conclude that p16(INK4a) alteration has an important role in progression of gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach. Furthermore, the study provides a possible link between regulation of p16(INK4a) network members and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
    Human pathology 04/2011; 42(10):1505-13. DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2011.01.005 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    • "Recently, near infrared fluorescence-based detection was reported as useful for reverse phase protein microarrays [8,9]. Routine applications involved analyzing the activation status of signaling pathways [10], protein profiling after RNAi-based silencing experiments [11], as well as of tumor biopsies [12,13]. "
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