Loss of 9p leads to p16INK4A down-regulation and enables RB/E2F1-dependent cell cycle promotion in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs).
ABSTRACT Loss of chromosome 9p is a reliable predictor of malignant behaviour in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). p16INK4A located at 9p21 inhibits the CDK4/6/cyclin D complex from phosphorylating RB. Phosphorylation of RB through CDK4/6/cyclin D in early G(1) phase frees the transcription factor E2F1 from RB and enables mRNA transcription of genes essential for G(1)/S phase transition. This study aims to determine the impact of 9p loss on mRNA and protein expression of p16INK4A and further key cell cycle regulators in the different phases of the cell cycle. Sixty primary GISTs previously characterized for 9p loss by comparative genomic hybridization were analysed for mRNA expression of p16INK4A, p15INK4B, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D, p21CIP1p27KIP1, CDK2, cyclin E, cyclin B, RB and E2F1, using quantitative RT-PCR. The protein expression of CDK6, CDK2, p21CIP1, p27KIP1 and phosphorylated RB (S807/S811) was evaluated using protein arrays as a novel and highly sensitive platform for profiling of protein abundance and protein phosphorylation. In parallel, the nuclear percentages of immunohistochemical staining for p16INK4A, cyclin D, E2F1 and RB were quantified on a tissue microarray. GISTs with 9p loss had significantly higher proliferation rates, higher metastatic behaviour and shorter disease-free survival. On the molecular level, GISTs with 9p loss had a significantly reduced mRNA as well as nuclear protein expression of p16INK4A. RB was significantly more phosphorylated in these tumours, together with increased mRNA expression and nuclear staining for E2F1. Furthermore, GISTs with 9p loss had up-regulation of the late G1/S phase promoters CDK2 and cyclin E. We conclude that loss of 9p accompanied by early G1 phase inhibitor p16(INK4A) down-regulation in GISTs facilitates phosphorylation of RB, enabling E2F1-dependent transcription of genes essential for late G1/S phase transition. This study provides a possible basis for the accelerated proliferation and particularly malignant behaviour in GISTs with 9p loss.
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ABSTRACT: Loss of RB1 gene is considered either a causal or an accelerating event in retinoblastoma. A variety of mechanisms inactivates RB1 gene, including intragenic mutations, loss of expression by methylation and chromosomal deletions, with effects which are species- and cell type- specific. RB1 deletion can even lead to aneuploidy thus greatly increasing cancer risk. The RB1gene is part of a larger gene family that includes RBL1 and RBL2, each of the three encoding structurally related proteins indicated as pRb, p107 and p130, respectively. The great interest in these genes and proteins springs from their ability to slow down neoplastic growth. pRb can associate with various proteins by which it can regulate a great number of cellular activities. In particular, its association with the E2F transcription factor family allows the control of the main pRb functions, while the loss of these interactions greatly enhances cancer development. As RB1 gene, also pRb can be functionally inactivated through disparate mechanisms which are often tissue specific and dependent on the scenario of the involved tumor suppressors and oncogenes. The critical role of the context is complicated by the different functions played by the RB proteins and the E2F family members. In this review, we want to emphasize the importance of the mechanisms of RB1/pRb inactivation in inducing cancer cell development. The review is divided in three chapters describing in succession the mechanisms of RB1 inactivation in cancer cells, the alterations of pRb pathway in tumorigenesis and the RB protein and E2F family in cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Physiology 01/2013; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, many studies have found that the miR-106b ~25 cluster plays an oncogenic role in tumor progression. However, the precise role of each microRNAs (miRNAs) in the cluster is not yet clear. In the present study, we examined the expression of miR-106b in glioma samples and a tissue microarray by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH), respectively, finding that miR-106b is overexpressed in the majority of gliomas. Meanwhile, the expression of miR-106b was positively correlated with tumor grade (p < 0.05). The transfection of a miR-106b anti-sense oligonucleotide (ASON) into three human glioma cell lines (U251, LN229 and TJ905) suppressed the proliferation of these cells. Moreover, the growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice treated with miR-106b ASON was significantly impaired. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that RBL2 may be the target of miR-106b, and dual-luciferase reporter assays identified RBL2, but not RB1 or RBL1, as a target of miR-106b. These results suggest that miR-106b facilitates glioma cell growth by promoting cell cycle progression through the negative regulation of RBL2.Journal of Neuro-Oncology 02/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: High-grade soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous, complex group of aggressive malignant tumors showing mesenchymal differentiation. Recently, soft tissue sarcomas have increasingly been classified on the basis of underlying genetic alterations; however, the role of aberrant DNA methylation in these tumors is not well understood and, consequently, the usefulness of methylation-based classification is unclear. We used the Infinium HumanMethylation27 platform to profile DNA methylation in 80 primary, untreated high-grade soft tissue sarcomas, representing eight relevant subtypes, two non-neoplastic fat samples and 14 representative sarcoma cell lines. The primary samples were partitioned into seven stable clusters. A classification algorithm identified 216 CpG sites, mapping to 246 genes, showing different degrees of DNA methylation between these seven groups. The differences between the clusters were best represented by a set of eight CpG sites located in the genes SPEG, NNAT, FBLN2, PYROXD2, ZNF217, COL14A1, DMRT2 and CDKN2A. By integrating DNA methylation and mRNA expression data, we identified 27 genes showing negative and three genes showing positive correlation. Compared with non-neoplastic fat, NNAT showed DNA hypomethylation and inverse gene expression in myxoid liposarcomas, and DNA hypermethylation and inverse gene expression in dedifferentiated and pleomorphic liposarcomas. Recovery of NNAT in a hypermethylated myxoid liposarcoma cell line decreased cell migration and viability. Our analysis represents the first comprehensive integration of DNA methylation and transcriptional data in primary high-grade soft tissue sarcomas. We propose novel biomarkers and genes relevant for pathogenesis, including NNAT as a potential tumor suppressor in myxoid liposarcomas.Genome biology 12/2013; 14(12):R137. · 10.30 Impact Factor