Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans pollution in China: sources, environmental levels and potential human health impacts.
ABSTRACT This review represents an assessment of the pollution status of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in China (the mainland, Hong Kong and Taiwan). During the past decades, seven PCDD/Fs pollution hotspots have been found: (a). Ya-er Lake, Hubei Province, with 'total PCDD/Fs' level reaching 177,427 pg g(-1) (dry weight) in lake sediments; (b). Chinese Schistosomiasis affected areas of Jiangxi Province with 33,660 pg g(-1) in soil; (c). e-waste recycling area of Yangtze River Delta, with 2726 pg g(-1) in paddy soil; (d). e-waste recycling area of Guiyu (eastern part of Guangdong Province), with 967,500 pg g(-1) in mixture of burnt residue and soil (the highest level among all hotspots); (e). Pearl River Delta with 2630 pg g(-1) in coastal sediment. (f). Kwun Tong, Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong with 10,999 pg g(-1) in coastal sediment; and (g). southern Taiwan with 606,000 pg g(-1) in soil near the vicinity of a pentachlorophenol manufacturing factory. The main sources of PCDD/Fs in China were formed from impurities during the production of polychlorophenol, hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated biphenyls, organic chlorinated pesticide and triclosan. In addition, sources of PCDD/Fs included municipal waste incineration, mineral fuel usage, open burning of electronic waste and crop residues, industrial waste discharge and vehicle exhaust emission. Due to potential human health risks from long-term exposure to PCDD/Fs at these hotspots, body loadings of these contaminants should be monitored.
Article: Environmental and human exposure to persistent halogenated compounds derived from e-waste in China.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Various classes of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) can be released into the environment due to improper handling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste), which creates severe environmental problems and poses hazards to human health as well. In this review, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) are the main target contaminants for examination. As the world's largest importer and recycler of e-waste, China has been under tremendous pressure to deal with this huge e-waste situation. This review assesses the magnitude of the e-waste problems in China based on data obtained from the last several years, during which many significant investigations have been conducted. Comparative analyses of the concentrations of several classes of toxic compounds, in which e-waste recycling sites are compared with reference sites in China, have indicated that improper e-waste handling affects the environment of dismantling sites more than that of control sites. An assessment of the annual mass loadings of PBDEs, PBBs, TBBPA, PBPs, PCDD/Fs, and ClPAHs from e-waste in China has shown that PBDEs are the dominant components of PHCs in e-waste, followed by ClPAHs and PCDD/Fs. The annual loadings of PBDEs, ClPAHs, and PCDD/Fs emission were estimated to range from 76,200 to 182,000, 900 to 2,000 and 3 to 8 kg/year, respectively. However, PCDD/Fs and ClPAHs should not be neglected because they are also primarily released from e-waste recycling processes. Overall, the magnitude of human exposure to these toxics in e-waste sites in China is at the high end of the global range.Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 06/2010; 29(6):1237-47. · 2.81 Impact Factor