Arginases I and II in lungs of ovalbumin-sensitized mice exposed to ovalbumin: sources and consequences.
ABSTRACT Arginase gene expression in the lung has been linked to asthma both in clinical studies of human patients and in the well-studied mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Arginase is thought to regulate NO levels in the lung by its ability to divert arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthases that produce citrulline and NO, into an alternative metabolic pathway producing ornithine and urea. In the present study arginase I and arginase II concentrations were measured in isolated microdissected airway preparations from sensitized Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. We found that arginase II was constitutively expressed in the airways of normal mice, whereas arginase I was undetectable in normal airways, while its expression was increased in airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin. The expression of arginase I strongly correlated with the presence of lung inflammation, as quantified by differential cell counts in lung lavage, suggesting that most, or all, of the arginase I in lungs of mice exposed to ovalbumin is present in the inflammatory cells rather than in the airway epithelium. There was also a significant correlation between increased expression of arginase I in the isolated airways and decreased lung compliance. On the other hand, while we found arginase II expression to also be significantly increased in airways from mice exposed to ovalbumin as compared with normal airways, the relative increase was much less than that observed for arginase I, suggesting that there was a smaller contribution of inflammatory cells to the arginase II content of the airways in mice exposed to ovalbumin. There was no apparent correlation between the content of arginase in isolated airways and exhaled NO concentration in the expired air from mice exposed to ovalbumin. However, there was a correlation between exhaled NO concentration from mice exposed to ovalbumin and the lymphocyte content of the lung lavage. The concentration of arginine found in isolated airways from Balb/c mice exposed for 2 weeks to ovalbumin was about half of the value found in isolated microdissected airways from normal mice. Treatment of mice systemically with an arginase inhibitor significantly increased the amount of NO produced, as measured as the amount of nitrite+nitrate (NOx) in lung lavage supernatant prepared from mice exposed to ovalbumin. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the response of the lung to ovalbumin challenge includes an adaptive response in the large airways regulating the concentration of arginine within cells of the airway epithelium and subepithelial layer, by shunting of arginine into the metabolic pathway for increased synthesis of NO.
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ABSTRACT: Exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) is used increasingly as a surrogate marker of airway inflammation in research protocols that may incorporate standard efficacy measures, such as spirometry before and after bronchodilator, which could affect ENO measurements. In seven healthy volunteers and 11 mild asthmatic subjects, we measured ENO before and serially for 1 h after spirometry. On two additional days in the subjects with asthma, we reexamined the effect of spirometry as before, followed by the serial measurement of ENO for 1 h after two puffs of salbutamol (100 microgram/puff) by metered-dose inhaler or matching placebo. As early as 1 min after spirometry, ENO fell by 13% and 10% in the normal and asthmatic subjects, respectively. In both groups, ENO returned to baseline over 1 h. In the asthmatic subjects, salbutamol caused a significant mean increase of the order of 10 parts per billion in ENO (p < 0.001) for 1 h as compared with placebo inhaler. We conclude that spirometry and beta2-agonist may perturb ENO values and recommend that studies control for these factors.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 03/1999; 159(3):940-4. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asthma, a complex chronic inflammatory pulmonary disorder, is on the rise despite intense ongoing research underscoring the need for new scientific inquiry. Using global microarray analysis, we recently discovered that asthmatic responses involve metabolism of arginine by arginase. We found that the cationic amino acid transporter (CAT)2, arginase I, and arginase II were particularly prominent among the allergen-induced gene transcripts. These genes are key regulators of critical processes associated with asthma, including airway tone, cell hyperplasia, and collagen deposition, respectively. Recent data suggest that arginase induction is not just a marker of allergic airway responses, but that arginase is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple aspects of disease. This review focuses on the current body of knowledge on L-arginine metabolism in asthma.Journal of Nutrition 11/2004; 134(10 Suppl):2830S-2836S; discussion 2853S. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Arginine is one of the most versatile amino acids in animal cells, serving as a precursor for the synthesis not only of proteins but also of nitric oxide, urea, polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine and agmatine. Of the enzymes that catalyse rate-controlling steps in arginine synthesis and catabolism, argininosuccinate synthase, the two arginase isoenzymes, the three nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes and arginine decarboxylase have been recognized in recent years as key factors in regulating newly identified aspects of arginine metabolism. In particular, changes in the activities of argininosuccinate synthase, the arginases, the inducible isoenzyme of nitric oxide synthase and also cationic amino acid transporters play major roles in determining the metabolic fates of arginine in health and disease, and recent studies have identified complex patterns of interaction among these enzymes. There is growing interest in the potential roles of the arginase isoenzymes as regulators of the synthesis of nitric oxide, polyamines, proline and glutamate. Physiological roles and relationships between the pathways of arginine synthesis and catabolism in vivo are complex and difficult to analyse, owing to compartmentalized expression of various enzymes at both organ (e.g. liver, small intestine and kidney) and subcellular (cytosol and mitochondria) levels, as well as to changes in expression during development and in response to diet, hormones and cytokines. The ongoing development of new cell lines and animal models using cDNA clones and genes for key arginine metabolic enzymes will provide new approaches more clearly elucidating the physiological roles of these enzymes.Biochemical Journal 12/1998; 336 ( Pt 1):1-17. · 4.65 Impact Factor