Mutagenic potency in Salmonella typhimurium of organic extracts of soil samples originating from urban, suburban, agricultural, forest and natural areas.
ABSTRACT The purpose of the present work was to assess the mutagenic potency of soil samples presumably not contaminated by industrial wastes and discharges. A set of 51 soil samples was collected from areas considered as not contaminated by a known industrial activity: 11 urban samples (collected in cities), 15 suburban samples (collected in villages), 7 agricultural samples, and 18 forest or natural samples. Each soil sample was collected at the surface (0-5cm deep), dried, sieved (2mm), homogenized before organic extraction (dichloromethane/acetone 1/1 (v/v), 37 degrees C, 4h, soil/solvent ratio 1/2, m/v), solvent exchange to DMSO and sterilizing filtration. The micro-method adaptation of the standard bacterial mutagenicity test on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was performed with and without a metabolic activation system (rat-liver homogenate S9), and thus detected the effect of pro-mutagens and direct mutagens, respectively. The use of a pre-incubation method increased the sensitivity of the assay. The results obtained showed a wide range of effect levels, from no effect to clear mutagenicity. In particular, the extract of all 11 urban soil samples demonstrated mutagenic activity, while the extracts of 10 of the 15 suburban samples showed mutagenicity. On the other hand, the extract of only one of the 7 agricultural samples studied induced mutations, and none of the 18 natural or forest-soil samples investigated produced mutagenic extracts. These findings seem to indicate the crucial influence of the diffuse pollution originating from different human activities on the mutagenic potency of urban soil samples. These findings make it possible to classify the soils according to their mutagenic potency. No clear correlation was found between the mutagenicity detected in soil extracts and the measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of the soils investigated.
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ABSTRACT: To clarify the mutagenic potential of surface soil in residential areas in Kyoto city, surface soil samples were collected twice or three times from 12 sites, and their organic extracts were examined by the Ames/Salmonella assay. Almost all (>92%) samples showed mutagenicity in TA98 without and with S9 mix, and 8/25 (32%) samples showed high (1000-10,000 revertants/g of soil) or extreme (>10,000 revertants/g of soil) activity. Moreover, to identify the major mutagens in surface soil in Kyoto, a soil sample was collected at a site where soil contamination with mutagens was severe and continual. The soil extract, which showed potent mutagenicity in TA98 without S9 mix, was fractionated by diverse column chromatography methods. Five major mutagenic constituents were isolated and identified to be 1,6-dinitropyrene (DNP), 1,8-DNP, 1,3,6-trinitropyrene (TNP), 3,9-dinitrofluoranthene (DNF), and 3,6-dinitrobenzo[e]pyrene (DNBeP) by co-chromatography using high performance liquid chromatography and spectral analysis. Contribution ratios of 1,6-DNP, 1,8-DNP, 1,3,6-TNP, 3,9-DNF, and 3,6-DNBeP to total mutagenicity of the soil extract in TA98 without S9 mix were 3, 10, 10, 10, and 6%, respectively. These nitroarenes were detected in surface soil samples collected from four different residential sites in other prefectures, and their contribution ratios to soil mutagenicity were from 0.7 to 22%. These results suggest that surface soil in residential areas in Kyoto was widely contaminated with mutagens and there were some sites where surface soils were heavily polluted. 1,6-DNP, 1,8-DNP, 1,3,6-TNP, 3,9-DNF, and 3,6-DNBeP may be major mutagenic constituents that contaminate surface soil in Kyoto and other residential areas.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 02/2008; 649(1-2):201-12. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of four extraction parameters (type of solvent, temperature, duration of extraction, and soil mass/solvent volume ratio) on the mutagenicity of soil extracts. Four urban soil samples were submitted to the micro-method adaptation of the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium according to the following sequence: identification of the most sensitive strain (TA98 or TA100), the best solvent(s), the optimum extraction temperature and extraction time, and finally the optimal soil/solvent ratio. Extraction was thus performed using eight different solvents (distilled water, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, acetone, cyclohexane, methanol, hexane, or ethanol), two temperatures (room temperature or 37 degrees C), two durations (4 or 24 h), and two soil mass/solvent volume ratios (1:2 or 1:10). The results show that strain TA98 was more sensitive than strain TA100, and the observed mutagenicity was expressed as number of TA98 revertants per mg of soil equivalent. No mutagenicity was induced by the distilled water extracts, whereas most of the organic solvent extracts induced a significant mutagenic response. A dichloromethane/acetone mixture appeared to be the best compromise for extraction of mutagens from the urban soils tested. Moreover, the present study showed that a higher mutagenic activity was generally obtained with a temperature of 37 degrees C (compared to room temperature), with an extraction time of 24 h (compared to 4 h), and with a soil mass/solvent volume ratio of 1:10 (compared to 1:2).Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 01/2005; 565(1):23-34. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mutagenicity of soils sampled at median strips, roadsides and a park neighboring arterial roads in Kurume City was determined by Ames test. Organic extracts of soils were mutagenic in strains TA98, TA100, YG1041 and YG1042 with and without S9mix. No sample showed mutagenic responses in strains YG3003 or YG7108. Extracts from soils of median strips and beside intersections showed higher mutagenicity and concentrations of PAHs and heavy metals than others, and mutagenic activity of soils correlated significantly with concentrations of PAHs and heavy metals. However, PAHs accounted for less than 12% of total mutagenicity in strains TA98 and TA100 of soil extracts. These extracts showed much higher mutagenicity in YG strains than in TA strains. The results indicate that these soils may be polluted with nitroarenes and aromatic amines.The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 09/2002; 27(3):183-9. · 1.38 Impact Factor