Effects of aging and dietary antler supplementation on the calcium-regulating hormones and bone status in ovariectomized SAMP8 mice

Department of Sports, Health and Leisure, Yungta Institute of Technology and Commerce, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC.
The Chinese journal of physiology (Impact Factor: 1.16). 01/2008; 50(6):308-14.
Source: PubMed


This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aging and long-term dietary antler supplementation on the calcium-regulating hormones and bone status in ovariectomized (Ovx) SAMP8 mice. The female SAMP8 mice were divided into four groups (in each group n = 6), Ovx or sham operated at the age of 2 months, and fed with 0.2% antler containing diet or control diet from the age of 2.5 months. The samples were collected at the age of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months, respectively, for physicochemical analyses, biochemical analyses, and the determination of hormones by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that plasma calcium (Ca) concentrations were maintained in a narrow range in all groups throughout the whole experimental period. With aging and/or ovariectomy, plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2-D3) levels increased, and plasma phosphorus (P) and calcitonin (CT) levels decreased, and the femoral bone densities and Ca contents increased during the earlier stage, and then decreased gradually in all groups. Plasma PTH and 1,25-(OH)2-D3 levels in the Ovx mice were significantly higher than those in the intact mice, and plasma P concentrations, plasma CT levels, femoral bone densities, and femoral Ca contents in the Ovx mice were significantly lower than those in the intact mice. In addition, the decreases of plasma P levels, plasma CT levels, femoral bone densities, and femoral Ca contents, and the increases of plasma PTH levels were moderated by antler administration in both Ovx and intact mice. However, there was no effect of the dietary antler supplementation on the plasma 1,25-(OH)2-D3 levels in the female mice. It is concluded that prolonged dietary antler supplementation has important positive effects on bone loss with age and/ or ovarian function deficiency.

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    • "Nonetheless, through the increased bone resorption minerals, mainly calcium will be consequently lost from bone. Therefore, calcium supplementation was widely studied in OVX rodents and has proven to inhibit bone loss [59]–[61]. Furthermore, vitamins as vitamin D and vitamin K were reported to protect bone after ovariectomy by reducing the induced bone loss resulting from estrogen deprivation [62]–[66]. The model described here tried to reach severe bone loss by the either depletion of vitamin D and deficient calcium and vitamin K. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many postmenopausal women have vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Therefore, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is recommended for all patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. We used an experimental rat model to test the hypothesis that induction of osteoporosis is more efficiently achieved in peripheral bone through combining ovariectomy with a unique multi-deficiencies diet (vitamin D depletion and deficient calcium, vitamin K and phosphorus). 14-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats served as controls to examine the initial bone status. 11 rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) and fed with multi-deficiencies diet. Three months later the treated group and the Sham group (n = 8) were euthanized. Bone biomechanical competence of the diaphyseal bone was examined on both, tibia and femur. Image analysis was performed on tibia via µCT, and on femur via histological analysis. Lower torsional stiffness indicated inferior mechanical competence of the tibia in 3 month OVX+Diet. Proximal metaphyseal region of the tibia showed a diminished bone tissue portion to total tissue in the µCT despite the increased total area as evaluated in both µCT and histology. Cortical bone showed higher porosity and smaller cross sectional thickness of the tibial diaphysis in the OVX+Diet rats. A lower ALP positive area and elevated serum level of RANKL exhibited the unbalanced cellular interaction in bone remodeling in the OVX+Diet rat after 3 month of treatment. Interestingly, more adipose tissue area in bone marrow indicated an effect of bone loss similar to that observed in osteoporotic patients. Nonetheless, the presence of osteoid and elevated serum level of PTH, BGP and Opn suggest the development of osteomalacia rather than an osteoporosis. As the treatment and fracture management of both osteoporotic and osteomalacia patients are clinically overlapping, this study provides a preclinical animal model to be utilized in local supplementation of minerals, drugs and growth factors in future fracture healing studies.
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    ABSTRACT: Current treatments for osteoporosis are associated with various side effects and do not prevent the age-related decrease in osteoblast number. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of iQPR-H₂O on osteogenesis. Mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in medium prepared with iQPR-H₂O or unprocessed mineral water (control cells), and proliferation and differentiation were assessed by MTT and alkaline phosphatase assay, respectively. Mineral deposition by the cells was determined using Alizarin red S staining. A mouse model of osteoporosis, ovariectomized SAMP8 mice, was used to evaluate the effects of iQPR-H₂O on osteogenesis in vivo. Mice were given either iQPR-H₂O or unprocessed mineral water (control group) for four months after which bone mass density (BMD) measurements were made using a bone densitometer and hematoxylin and eosin staining of bone samples. NIH3T3 cells grown in medium prepared with iQPR-H₂O exhibited significantly greater proliferation. NIH3T3 and MC3T3-E1 cells demonstrated a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase levels in the iQPR-H₂O group. MC3T3-E1 cells showed mineralization at day 28. mRNA expression levels of both osteopontin and runt-related transcription factor 2 in MC3T3-E1 cells were higher in the iQPR-H₂O group compared with the control group. After four months, significantly greater bone regeneration was evident in ovariectomized SAMP8 mice administered iQPR-H₂O as compared with control group. iQPR-H₂O may reduce the symptoms of osteoporosis by improving osteogenesis.
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