Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Air and Seawater of the Atlantic Ocean: Sources, Trends and Processes

Centre for Chemicals Management and Department of Environmental Science, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 04/2008; 42(5):1416-22. DOI: 10.1021/es071432d
Source: PubMed


Air and seawater samples were collected on board the RV Polarstern during a cruise from Bremerhaven, Germany to Cape Town, South Africa from October-November 2005. Broad latitudinal trends were observed with the lowest sigma27PCB air concentration (approximately 10 pg m(-3)) in the South Atlantic and the highest (approximately 1000 pg m(-3)) off the west coast of Africa. Sigma(ICES)PCBs ranged from 3.7 to 220 pg m(-3) in air samples and from 0.071 to 1.7 pg L(-1) in the dissolved phase seawater samples. Comparison with other data from cruises in the Atlantic Ocean since 1990 indicate little change in air concentrations over the remote open ocean. The relationship of gas-phase partial pressure with temperature was examined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation; significant temperature dependencies were found for all PCBs over the South Atlantic, indicative of close air-water coupling. There was no temperature dependence for atmospheric PCBs overthe North Atlantic, where concentrations were controlled by advection of contaminated air masses. Due to large uncertainties in the Henry's Law Constant (HLC), fugacity fractions and air-water exchange fluxes were estimated using different HLCs reported in the literature. These suggest that conditions are close to air-water equilibrium for most of the ocean, but net deposition is dominating over volatilization in parts of the transect. Generally, the tri- and tetrachlorinated homologues dominated the total flux (> 70%). Total PCB fluxes (28, 52, 118, 138, and 153) ranged from -7 to 0.02 ng m(-2) day(-1).

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    • "SPE is simple, fast, requires minimal solvent and can be tailored for specific analytes with different properties by proper sorbent selection (Hennion, 1999; Liska, 1993). Amberlite XAD-2 resin was the most common adsorbent utilized for the extraction of hydrophobic organic compounds from seawater (Carroll et al., 2007; Galbán-Malagón et al., 2013; Gioia et al., 2008; Iwata et al., 1993; Rajendran et al., 2005; Xie et al., 2007). However, amberlite XAD-2 resin usually requires very large volumes of both sample (10–100 L seawater) and elution solvent (100–300 mL), as compared to SPE via C18 disks, which only require a few liters of sample and mL volumes of elution solvent (Dachs and Bayona, 1997; Erger et al., 2013; Sutton et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: A gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) based method was developed for determination of 86 hydrophobic organic compounds in seawater. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was employed for sequestration of target analytes in the dissolved phase. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and florisil chromatography were utilized for determination of concentrations in suspended sediments (particulate phase). The target compounds included multi-class hydrophobic contaminants with a wide range of physical-chemical properties. This list includes several polycyclic and nitro-aromatic musks, brominated and chlorinated flame retardants, methyl triclosan, chlorobenzenes, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Spiked MilliQ water and seawater samples were used to evaluate the method performance. Analyte recoveries were generally good, with the exception of some of the more volatile target analytes (chlorobenzenes and bromobenzenes). The method is very sensitive, with method detection limits typically in the low parts per quadrillion (ppq) range. Analysis of 51 field-collected seawater samples (dissolved and particulate-bound phases) from four distinct coastal sites around Singapore showed trace detection of several polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and other legacy POPs, as well as several current-use emerging organic contaminants (EOCs). Polycyclic and nitro-aromatic musks, bromobenzenes, dechlorane plus isomers (syn-DP, anti-DP) and methyl triclosan were frequently detected at appreciable levels (2-20,000pgL(-1)). The observed concentrations of the monitored contaminants in Singapore's marine environment were generally comparable to previously reported levels in other coastal marine systems. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements of these emerging contaminants of concern in Singapore or Southeast Asia. The developed method may prove beneficial for future environmental monitoring of hydrophobic organic contaminants in marine environments. Further, the study provides novel information regarding several potentially hazardous contaminants of concern in Singapore's marine environment, which will aid future risk assessment initiatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Science of The Total Environment 04/2015; 523:219-232. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.012 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "The temperature step of a few degrees across the Canary Front cannot cause a noticeable change in HCH concentrations . Strong atmospheric deposition of POPs can leave an oceanic imprint such as elevated aqueous PCB concentrations off West Africa, likely from atmospheric emissions (including those from illegal waste dumping of banned POPs) rather than ocean currents (Gioia et al., 2008b, 2011). "
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    Progress In Oceanography 09/2014; 128:172-184. DOI:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.08.013 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Deep oceans are considered as a final sink for POPs, removing them from the ''recyclable pool'' in the environment (Dachs et al., 2002). Net deposition of PCBs has been observed in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans (Gioia et al., 2008a,b). However, volatilization of PCBs from the ocean to lower air has also been estimated in the open Pacific Ocean (Zhang and Lohmann, 2010) and tropical Atlantic Ocean (Lohmann et al., 2012), suggesting oceans could also act as a secondary source of atmospheric PCBs in the environment. "
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    Marine Pollution Bulletin 01/2014; 80(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.01.007 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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