Dimensions of psychosis in patients with bipolar mania as measured by the positive and negative syndrome scale.
ABSTRACT Psychosis is present in 50% or more of patients with bipolar mania and is commonly evaluated in clinical research by means of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The aim of the present analysis was to investigate the psychotic dimensions of bipolar disorder and its contributing symptoms based on a factor analysis of baseline PANSS scores and to compare them with those identified in studies of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Baseline data were analyzed from two 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of risperidone monotherapy for acute mania associated with bipolar I disorder (n = 535). Inclusion criteria were a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder with manic features, with or without psychotic features, age > or =18 years, and mean baseline Young Mania Rating Scale scores > or =20. A principal component analysis of the 30 PANSS item scores of the 535 patients with a diagnosis of a manic episode at baseline was conducted.
Five factors were extracted by the analysis: anxiety (13.4% of the variance), negative symptoms (12.3%), depression (10.5%), excitement (10.3%), and positive symptoms (8.7%). Similar factors, in particular the negative, excitement, and positive factors, have been identified in patients with schizophrenia. There was an absence of a cognitive factor supporting the notion that bipolar patients may present fewer cognitive symptoms.
The results of the present analysis and those of other studies indicate similarities in psychotic symptom domains, as measured by the PANSS, in patients with bipolar mania and schizophrenia. Future analyses will address the effects of treatment on the identified factors.
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ABSTRACT: Context:Cross-sectional studies of the signs and symptoms of psychosis yield dimensional phenotypes. However, the validity and clinical utility of such dimensions remain debated. This study investigated the structure of psychotic symptomatology, the stability of the structure over time, and the concordance between symptom dimensions and categorical diagnoses.Methods:Sample consisted of 500 first-episode psychotic patients. A cross-sectional study (N = 500) investigated the organizational structure of symptom dimensions at the onset of psychosis and its concordance with categorical diagnoses; next, a nested longitudinal study (N = 100) examined the stability of the symptom dimensions structure after 5-10 years of follow-up.Results:Factor analyses identified 6 first-order factors (mania, negative, disorganization, depression, hallucinations, and delusions) and 2 high-order factors (affective and nonaffective psychoses). Cumulative variance accounted for by the first and high-order factors was 63%: 31% by the first-order factors and 32% by the high-order factors. The factorial structure of psychotic symptoms during first episode remained stable after 5-10 years of follow-up. The overall concordance between 4 categorical diagnostic groups (schizophrenia, mania with psychosis, psychotic depression and schizoaffective disorder) and dimensional symptom ranged from 62.2% to 73.1% (when the schizoaffective group was excluded).Conclusions:Symptoms of psychosis assume a multidimensional hierarchical structure. This hierarchical model was stable over time and showed good concordance with categorical diagnoses. The combined use of dimensional and categorical approach to psychotic disorders would be of clinical and research utility.Schizophrenia Bulletin 05/2013; · 8.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Associations between symptom dimensions and cognition have been mainly studied in non-affective psychosis. The present study investigated whether previously reported associations between cognition and four symptom dimensions (reality distortion, negative symptoms, disorganisation and depression) in non-affective psychosis generalise to a wider spectrum of psychoses. It also extended the research focus to mania, a less studied symptom dimension. Linear and non-linear (quadratic, curvilinear or inverted-U-shaped) associations between cognition and the above five symptom dimensions were examined in a population-based cohort of 166 patients with first-onset psychosis using regression analyses. Negative symptoms showed statistically significant linear associations with IQ and processing speed, and a significant curvilinear association with verbal memory/learning. Significant quadratic associations emerged between mania and processing speed and mania and executive function. The contributions of mania and negative symptoms to processing speed were independent of each other. The findings did not differ between affective and non-affective psychoses, and survived correction for multiple testing. Mania and negative symptoms are associated with distinct patterns of cerebral dysfunction in first-onset psychosis. A novel finding is that mania relates to cognitive performance by a complex response function (inverted-U-shaped relationship). The associations of negative symptoms with cognition include both linear and quadratic elements, suggesting that this dimension is not a unitary concept. These findings cut across affective and non-affective psychoses, suggesting that different diagnostic entities within the psychosis spectrum lie on a neurobiological continuum.Schizophrenia Research 07/2012; 140(1-3):221-31. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AimsThe aim of this study was to investigate the associations between recent cannabis use, current symptomatology and age at onset of first manic, depressive and psychotic episodes in a large sample with first-treatment bipolar I disorder (BD I).Methods One hundred one patients with first-treatment Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) bipolar I disorder were included as part of the Thematically Organized Psychosis study. The Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used for DSM-IV diagnosis and identification of episodes of illness. Earlier suicide attempts were recorded. Manic, depressive and psychotic symptoms were rated using the Young Mania Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptoms and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale correspondingly. Cannabis use within the six last months was recorded.ResultsAfter controlling for confounders, recent cannabis use was significantly associated with lower age at onset of first manic and psychotic episode, but not with onset of first depressive episode (both P < 0.05). Recent use was also associated with more lifetime suicide attempts (P < 0.01). No group differences were found on symptom levels.Conclusions The present study confirms earlier findings of an association between cannabis use and a lower age at onset. Recent cannabis use was also associated with more lifetime suicide attempts. The current findings suggest that recent cannabis use is associated with a more severe course of illness in the early phase of BD I.Early Intervention in Psychiatry 05/2014; · 1.65 Impact Factor