Dimensions of psychosis in patients with bipolar mania as measured by the positive and negative syndrome scale.
ABSTRACT Psychosis is present in 50% or more of patients with bipolar mania and is commonly evaluated in clinical research by means of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The aim of the present analysis was to investigate the psychotic dimensions of bipolar disorder and its contributing symptoms based on a factor analysis of baseline PANSS scores and to compare them with those identified in studies of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Baseline data were analyzed from two 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of risperidone monotherapy for acute mania associated with bipolar I disorder (n = 535). Inclusion criteria were a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder with manic features, with or without psychotic features, age > or =18 years, and mean baseline Young Mania Rating Scale scores > or =20. A principal component analysis of the 30 PANSS item scores of the 535 patients with a diagnosis of a manic episode at baseline was conducted.
Five factors were extracted by the analysis: anxiety (13.4% of the variance), negative symptoms (12.3%), depression (10.5%), excitement (10.3%), and positive symptoms (8.7%). Similar factors, in particular the negative, excitement, and positive factors, have been identified in patients with schizophrenia. There was an absence of a cognitive factor supporting the notion that bipolar patients may present fewer cognitive symptoms.
The results of the present analysis and those of other studies indicate similarities in psychotic symptom domains, as measured by the PANSS, in patients with bipolar mania and schizophrenia. Future analyses will address the effects of treatment on the identified factors.
- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.com[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In order to examine the effect of neuroleptic medication on the factor structure of schizophrenic symptomatology, 517 DSM-III-R schizophrenic in-patients enrolled in a multicenter phase II drug study were evaluated on their pre-existing neuroleptic at screening on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and after a one-week drug-free period. Separate principal components analyses of the PANSS were done at each time point. PANSS total and component scores were assessed for differences utilizing paired t-tests. Both factor analyses confirmed the five factor model (negative, positive, cognitive, excitement and depression components) explaining 51.7 and 56.2% of the variances at each time point. After medication wash-out psychopathology significantly worsened as measured by total PANSS score and by each of the components. The overall worsening of component scores appeared global and uniform, as evidenced by the fact that at washout, the proportion of individual component scores to total psychopathology remained constant for most components. The lack of change of most components in proportion to the psychopathology total is evidence for the stability of these individual psychopathological dimensions of patients while on and off neuroleptics. The results further support the validity of the five-factor model of schizophrenic psychopathology as measured by the PANSS.Schizophrenia Research 03/1995; 14(3):229-34. · 4.59 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Psychotic features in the context of major depressive syndromes have correlates in symptom severity, acute treatment response and long-term prognosis. Little is known as to whether psychotic features have similar importance when they occur within manic syndromes. These data derive from a multi-center, long-term follow-up of patients with major affective disorder. Raters conducted follow-up interviews at 6-month intervals for the first 5 years and annually thereafter. A sub-set of probands participated in a family study in which all available, adult, first-degree relatives were interviewed as well. Of 139 who entered the study in an episode of mania, 90 patients had psychotic features. Symptom severity ratings at intake were more severe for this group. Though time to first recovery and time to first relapse did not distinguish the groups, psychotic features were associated with a greater number of weeks ill during follow-up and the strength of this association was similar to that seen for psychotic features within depressed patients described in an earlier publication. Patients with psychotic mania at intake did not differ significantly from those with nonpsychotic mania by response to acute lithium treatment, suicidal behavior during follow-up, or risks for affective disorder among first-degree relatives. Psychotic features within manic syndromes were not associated with high psychosis ratings during follow-up. In contrast, when psychotic features accompanied depressive syndromes, they strongly predicted the number of weeks with psychosis during follow-up, particularly among individuals whose episodes at intake were less acute. As with major depressive syndromes, psychotic features in mania are associated with greater symptom severity and higher morbidity in the long-term. Psychotic features are much less predictive of future psychosis when they occur within a manic syndrome than when they occur within a depressive syndrome.Journal of Affective Disorders 01/2002; 67(1-3):79-88. · 3.30 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated the structure of manic episodes by determining whether there was evidence for distinct groups of patients differing in clinical characteristics and course of illness. The subjects were 162 patients hospitalized for manic episodes who underwent comprehensive evaluations of behavior, symptoms, and history before a treatment study. Pretreatment behavior ratings (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, rated by clinicians, and Affective Disorder Rating Scale, rated by nurses) entered a principal components factor analysis, followed by a cluster analysis of the subjects based on their factor scores. Members of the resulting clusters were compared with respect to clinical characteristics and history of illness. The six factors were impulsivity, hyperactivity, anxious pessimism, distressed appearance, hostility, and psychosis. The four clusters were characterized as depressive, with high anxious pessimism (n=22), delusional, with high psychosis (n=39), classic (n=72), and irritable, with high distressed appearance and hostility (n=29). Depressive manics had the earliest onset of illness and the highest density of episodes/year, while irritable manics had later onset and the fewest previous episodes. The number of subjects was smaller than ideal for multivariate analysis, subjects were limited to those able to consent and meet criteria for a randomized clinical trial, and course of illness was determined retrospectively. Manic episodes have a dimensional structure but appear to fall naturalistically into types that differ with respect to previous history, symptoms, and clinical characteristics. Whether these are distinct clinical subtypes will require further research.Journal of Affective Disorders 01/2002; 67(1-3):123-32. · 3.30 Impact Factor