Risk factors for tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after adult orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) have been reported, although there are no pediatric data.
This study was a single-center retrospective analysis of patients <or= 18 years of age who underwent OHT from January 1990 to December 2004. The impact of TR was evaluated with respect to outcomes (graft failure, etc.).
Echocardiograms were available for 99 patients (105 grafts with 6 re-transplants) at a median age of 4.5 years (range 18 days to 17.1 years): 51 (49%) were male; 46 (44%) were transplanted for congenital heart disease; and 76 (72%) had a biatrial anastomosis. Significant TR developed in 30 grafts (29.5%) within a median duration after OHT of 1.2 years (range 0 day to 8.2 years); persistent significant TR until last follow-up was present in 21 grafts (20%). Graft failure (death or need for retransplantation) occurred in 41 grafts (39%), including 14 of 21 grafts (67%) with significant TR. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, freedom from significant TR (95% confidence interval [CI]) at 1, 5 and 10 years was 91.0% (83.4% to 95.2%), 70.2% (55.4% to 80.9%) and 61.5% (39.2% to 77.6%), respectively. No risk factors were identified. Development of significant TR was highly associated with graft failure (p = 0.005).
Significant TR occurs with comparable frequency in pediatric and adult OHT populations; risk factors identified in adults were not present in our pediatric population. Development of significant TR in pediatric heart transplant recipients is highly associated with graft failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic and echocardiographic function of hearts transplanted with the modified bicaval anastomosis technique (mBCAT).
Twenty consecutive patients (14 males, 6 females, age range 14-61 [41.3 +/-11.5 years]) were evaluated 3.4 +/-2.2 years after heart transplantation using the mBCAT. All patients were in status I on the waiting list, and 18 (90%) had had a left ventricular assist device. The donor age was 39 +/-12 years. Triple immunosuppressive regimen and cardiac biopsy were routinely performed. There was no hospital mortality. One death occurred 4.2 years after the operation because of bone marrow dysplasia and infection. The 8-year survival was 89% (95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.98). All the hemodynamic variables returned to the normal range. Low right atrial pressure (3.2 +/-1.5 mmHg) and low pulmonary wedge pressure (6.7 +/-2.1 mmHg) were associated with an excellent cardiac index (3.9 +/-0.7 L . min(-1) . m(-2)). Echocardiography revealed an excellent late peak velocity (52 +/-19 cm/s) and an E/A ratio (1.4 +/-0.6) of tricuspid flow. The grade (0-4) of tricuspid regurgitation averaged 1.5 +/-0.8.
Hemodynamic and echocardiographic results for mBCAT were excellent. The 8-year survival was 89% with all surviving patients in New York Heart Association class I. The mBCAT is easy to perform and further facilitates cardiac transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No prior reports documenting the safety and diagnostic yield of cardiac catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) in heart transplant recipients include multicenter data.
Data on the safety and diagnostic yield of EMB procedures performed in heart transplant recipients were recorded in the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Outcomes Project database at 8 pediatric centers during a 3-year period. Adverse events (AEs) were classified according to a 5-level severity scale. Generalized estimating equation models identified risk factors for high-severity AEs (HSAEs; Levels 3-5) and non-diagnostic biopsy samples.
A total of 2,665 EMB cases were performed in 744 pediatric heart transplant recipients (median age, 12 years [interquartile range, 4.8, 16.7]; 54% male). AEs occurred in 88 cases (3.3%), of which 28 (1.1%) were HSAEs. AEs attributable to EMB included tricuspid valve injury, transient complete heart block, and right bundle branch block. Amongst 822 cases involving coronary angiography, 10 (1.2%) resulted in a coronary-related AE. There were no myocardial perforations or deaths. Multivariable risk factors for HSAEs included fewer prior catheterizations (p = 0.006) and longer case length (p < 0.001). EMB yielded sufficient tissue for diagnosis in 99% of cases. Longer time since heart transplant was the most significant predictor of a non-diagnostic biopsy sample (p < 0.001).
In the current era, cardiac catheterizations involving EMB can be performed in pediatric heart transplant recipients with a low AE rate and high diagnostic yield. Risk of HSAEs is increased in early post-transplant biopsies and with longer case length. Longer time since heart transplant is associated with non-diagnostic EMB samples.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 12/2011; 31(4):398-409. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2011.11.019 · 6.65 Impact Factor
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