Comparison of clinical results according to amount of preserved remnant in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using quadrupled hamstring graft

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.
Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.19). 06/2008; 24(5):560-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2007.11.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical results of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with the remnant-preserving technique by use of a hamstring graft and looped sutures according to the amount of the tibial remnant of the ACL.
Sixteen subjects had undergone ACL reconstruction with the remnant-preserving technique by use of 4 strands of a hamstring tendon and a looped suture technique and were followed up for at least 12 months. The mean follow-up was 35.1 months. At the last follow-up examination, the patients were evaluated with the International Knee Documentation Committee scale and Hospital for Special Surgery score as subjective tests; stress radiographs, Lachman test, and anterior drawer test by use of the KT-2000 arthrometer (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) as objective tests; and single-legged hop test, reproduction of passive positioning, threshold to detection of passive motion, and single-limb standing test as functional tests. On the basis of the extent of ACL remnant, patients were then divided into 2 groups. Group I comprised patients with more than 20%, and group II comprised those with less than 20%. For each of the 2 groups, a statistical comparison of the final results was made.
The mean Hospital for Special Surgery score improved from 65.8 (preoperatively) to 95.2 (at last follow-up). Functional evaluation revealed that the difference was not significant in terms of mechanical stability, but a significant difference was detected in functional outcome and proprioception. Regarding the threshold to detection of passive motion at 30 degrees (P = .030) and reproduction of passive positioning at 15 degrees (P = .032) and 30 degrees (P = .024), group I (> 20%) showed better results than group II (< 20%).
We confirmed that the remnant-preserving technique described showed good proprioceptive and functional outcomes with statistical significance. Therefore it may be expected that the more the tibial remnant is kept intact, the better the preservation of proprioceptive function will be.
Level IV, prognostic case series.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the histological features of the remaining fibers bridging femur and tibia in partial ACL tears. Methods 26 ACL remnants were harvested from patients who had arthroscopic criteria concordant with a partial tear. Histological analysis includes cellularity, blood vessel density evaluation and characterization of the femoral bony insertion morphology. Immunohistochemical studies were carried out to determine cell positive for α-smooth actin and for mechanoreceptors detection. Results In this samples, a normal femoral insertion of the remnant was present in 22.7% of the cases. In 54 % of the samples, substantial areas of hypercellularity were observed. Myofibroblasts were the predominant cell type and numerous cells positive for α-smooth actin were detected at immunostaining. Blood vessel density was increased in hypercellularity areas and in the synovial sheet. Free nerve endings and few Golgi or Ruffini corpuscles were detected in 41 % of the specimens. The cellularity was correlated to the time between injury to surgery (p = .001). Conclusion Competent histological structures including a well vascularized synovial sheet, numerous fibroblasts and myofibroblasts and mechanoreceptors were found in ACL remnants. These histological findings bring additional knowledge towards the preservation of the ACL remnant in partial tears when ACL reconstruction or augmentation is considered.
    The Knee 07/2014; 21(6). DOI:10.1016/j.knee.2014.07.020 · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biological integration of the tendon graft is a crucial prerequisite for successful ACL reconstruction. Histological studies showed that the human ACL remnants contain a cellular capacity for healing potential. The goal of this technical note is to describe an ACL reconstruction technique, using ACL remnants as a biological sleeve for the graft. In case of complete ACL rupture with a large remnant, the tibial tunnel was performed inside and through the ACL tibial stump by careful sequential drilling. Femoral tunnel placement was performed by an outside-in technique. The hamstring graft was kept attached to the tibia and routed through the ACL remnant to the femur. The aim of this technique is the preservation of the biological and mechanical properties of the ACL remnant. In order to preserve large remnants resulting in greater graft coverage, the best period to perform this reconstruction is during the first weeks after the injury.
    Orthopaedics & Traumatology Surgery & Research 10/2010; 96(7):810-5. DOI:10.1016/j.otsr.2010.06.007 · 1.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of joint synovial fluid on tendon-to-bone healing in intra-articular ligament reconstruction of the knee. We divided 40 female New Zealand white rabbits into 4 groups randomly, with 10 animals in each group. Transfer of the semitendinosus tendon to the tibial bone tunnel was performed to create tendon-to-bone healing models. An intra-articular bone tunnel (IBT) was used on the left side and an extra-articular bone tunnel (EBT) on the right. Histologic evaluation was performed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the operation and biomechanical testing at 8 weeks. On the basis of fibroblast proliferation, collagen fiber density, collagen fiber orientation, and tendon-to-bone connection, histologic scores were significantly lower in the IBT group than in the EBT group at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Cell counts per high-power field at the tendon-bone interface were significantly lower in the IBT group than in the EBT group at 2 and 4 weeks. In addition, biomechanical testing showed that the IBT group was significantly inferior to the EBT group in terms of ultimate failure load, yield load, and stiffness. There was also a significant difference between the 2 groups in failure mode. Joint synovial fluid appeared to have an inhibitory effect on tendon-to-bone healing in rabbits at an early stage. Our findings imply that prevention of infiltration of joint synovial fluid into the bone tunnel might be beneficial in improving the clinical outcome of cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 05/2012; 28(9):1297-305. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2012.02.017 · 3.19 Impact Factor