Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Costus speciosus in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
ABSTRACT Hyperglycemia, abnormal lipid and antioxidant profiles are the most usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipemic and antioxidant potency of an ethanol extract of Costus speciosus root was investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic male (Charles Foster) rats. Four groups of alloxan diabetic rats (n = 6) were administered orally with different doses of Costus speciosus root extract (150, 300 and 450 mg/kg BW) and a standard drug, glibenclamide (600 microg/kg BW), for 4 weeks. Two groups of rats (n = 6) served as normal and diabetic controls. While the diabetic controls showed significant abnormal carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant profiles, administration of 150 mg/kg BW dose neither improved glucose nor lipid metabolism and antioxidant levels. Administration of 300 and 450 mg/kg BW doses, however, resulted in a reversal of diabetes and its complications. Both doses significantly brought down blood glucose concentration (26.76%, 34.68%), increased glycogenesis and decreased glyconeogenesis bringing the glucose metabolism toward normalcy. These doses also reversed the hyperlipidemia by reducing plasma total lipid (12.87%, 178.24%), cholesterol (21.92%, 30.77%) and triglyceride (25.32%, 33.99%) and improved hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities. The high dose (450 mg/kg BW) was found to have more potential antioxidant activities compared with glibenclamide. It is concluded that Costus speciosus root extract possesses anti-hyperglycemic, antihyperlipemic and antioxidative effects, which may prove to be of clinical importance in the management of diabetes and its complications.
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ABSTRACT: Santalum album Linn (Santalaceae), commonly known as Sandalwood is used traditionally for its antihyperlipidemic and diuretic activity. This study investigated the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of long-term oral administration of the Santalum album pet ether fraction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at 70 mg/kg body weight. Rats were treated with Santalum album pet ether fraction orally at a dose of 10 µg/kg body weight twice daily for 60 days. Metformin (30 mg/kg body weight) was used as positive control. Lipid profile and glycated hemoglobin were estimated. HPLC profiling of Santalum album pet ether fraction was carried out. Treatment of diabetic rats for 60 days demonstrated reduction in blood glucose level by 140 mg/dl. Metformin treated group showed a decrease in blood glucose by 70 mg/dl, as against an increase in diabetic control group by 125 mg/dl. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels were decreased by 22, 31 and 44%, respectively, in treated diabetic rats whereas, cardioprotective, high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased by 46%. In case of metformin, the values were 11, 29 and 15% respectively, while HDL increased by 7%. Significant improvement in atherogenic index from 267 to 139% was observed in treated rats. Santalum album pet ether fraction has potential antihyperlipidemic activity that can help in overcoming insulin resistance.Pharmaceutical Biology 12/2011; 50(3):360-5. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action.Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences. 01/2012; 4(1):27-42.
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ABSTRACT: Plants have been the main source of medicines since ancient times. Practically all human societies have utilized plants not only as sources of nutrition but also as therapy against diseases and ailments. Plants contain various phytochemicals and these phytochemicals can play an important role in reducing occurrences of many diseases by boosting up various organ functions of the human body, by acting as antioxidants and by supplying necessary nutrients. In the present review, an attempt has been made to document the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological information on Melia azedarach, a medicinal plant used in the indigenous system of medicine for therapeutic purpose. M. azedarach has been shown to possess various pharmacological activities like antinephrolithiasis, antiulcer, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifertility, anthelmintic, antipyretic, anti-parasitic and cytotoxic activities etc. A review of the relevant scientific literature on the M. azedarach L. showed that this plant contains many phytochemical constituents including alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and rutins. The present review is an effort to screen a detail updated survey of the literature on its phytochemical and pharmacological appraisals which have been or still are being learned.International Journal of Advanced Research 01/2014; 2(5):227-249. · 1.66 Impact Factor