Explicit rejection of an implicit dichotomy: integrating two approaches to assessing dependency.
ABSTRACT The field of personality theory and assessment is characterized by a long-standing divide between proponents of self-report and indirect approaches to assessment. This article reviews the increasing convergence between the two sides, using recent writings on interpersonal dependency as an example domain. The assumptions of the self-report approach to personality assessment are contrasted with those of the indirect, and research using both types of assessments is reviewed. Also considered is the importance of recognizing dissociations between a particular individual's scores on self-report and indirect measures of a given component of self-concept, and the possible implications of such dissociations. It is argued that the convergence between two traditionally disparate approaches is likely to develop, in light of hypotheses, data and conclusions that bear notable similarity.
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ABSTRACT: Understanding athletes' attitudes and behavioural intentions towards performance enhancement is critical to informing anti-doping intervention strategies. Capturing the complexity of these attitudes beyond verbal declarations requires indirect methods. This pilot study was aimed at developing and validating a method to assess implicit doping attitudes using an Implicit Associations Test (IAT) approach. The conventional IAT evaluation task (categorising 'good' and 'bad' words) was combined with a novel 'doping' versus 'nutrition supplements' category pair to create a performance-enhancement related IAT protocol (PE-IAT). The difference between average response times to 'good-doping' and 'bad-doping' combinations represents an estimate of implicit attitude towards doping in relation to nutritional supplements. 111 sports and exercise science undergraduates completed the PE-IAT, the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) and answered questions regarding their beliefs about doping. Longer response times were observed in the mixed category discrimination trials where categories 'good' and 'doping' shared the same response key (compared to 'bad-doping' combination on the same key) indicating a less favourable evaluation of doping substances. The PE-IAT measure did not correlate significantly with the declared doping attitudes (r = .181, p = .142), indicating a predictable partial dissociation. Action-oriented self-report expressed stronger associations with PE-IAT: participants who declared they would consider using doping showed significantly less implicit negativity towards banned substances (U = 109.00, p = .047). Similarly, those who reported more lenient explicit attitudes towards doping or expressly supported legalizing it, showed less implicit negativity towards doping in the sample, although neither observed differences reached statistical significance (t = 1.300, p = .198, and U = 231.00, p = .319, respectively). Known-group validation strategy yielded mixed results: while competitive sport participants scored significantly lower than non-competitive ones on the PEAS (t = -2.71, p = .008), the two groups did not differ on PE-IAT (t = -.093, p = .926). The results suggest a potential of the PE-IAT method to capture undeclared attitudes to doping and predict behaviour, which can support targeted anti-doping intervention and related research. The initial evidence of validity is promising but also indicates a need for improvement to the protocol and stimulus material.Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy 02/2008; 3:9. DOI:10.1186/1747-597X-3-9 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine the degree to which patients with high levels of trait dependency or dependent personality disorder (DPD) engage in behaviors that harm themselves and others (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse). Method Six domains of literature were reviewed: (a) dependency as a risk factor for physical illness; (b) health care utilization and expenditures; (c) global and domain-specific functional impairment; (d) violence toward others; (e) victimization by others; and (f) self-harm. ResultsHigh levels of trait dependency and DPD are associated with elevated risk for physical illness, partner and child abuse, and suicidality, as well as with high levels of functional impairment and increased health care expenditure. Conclusions Contrary to clinical lore, trait dependency and DPD are associated with behaviors that lead to myriad negative consequences for the dependent person, those close to them, and society as a whole. These patterns have noteworthy implications for assessment and treatment of dependent patients and suggest that DPD should be included as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Clin. Psychol. 68:766-781, 2012Journal of Clinical Psychology 07/2012; 68(7). DOI:10.1002/jclp.21870 · 2.12 Impact Factor
Article: Neediness and depression in women.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In a 6-month longitudinal design, the authors examined the links between neediness and increases in depressive symptoms in women. Neediness was assessed with the self-report Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), supplemented by a projective measure that assessed an important component of dependency, oral dependency, on the Rorschach. Results indicate that neediness correlated significantly with increases in depressive symptoms over the 6 months. Orality interacted with neediness to substantially increase the prediction of increases in depressive symptoms.Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 03/2014; 78(1):16-33. DOI:10.1521/bumc.2014.78.1.16 · 0.72 Impact Factor