Explicit rejection of an implicit dichotomy: integrating two approaches to assessing dependency.
ABSTRACT The field of personality theory and assessment is characterized by a long-standing divide between proponents of self-report and indirect approaches to assessment. This article reviews the increasing convergence between the two sides, using recent writings on interpersonal dependency as an example domain. The assumptions of the self-report approach to personality assessment are contrasted with those of the indirect, and research using both types of assessments is reviewed. Also considered is the importance of recognizing dissociations between a particular individual's scores on self-report and indirect measures of a given component of self-concept, and the possible implications of such dissociations. It is argued that the convergence between two traditionally disparate approaches is likely to develop, in light of hypotheses, data and conclusions that bear notable similarity.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine the degree to which patients with high levels of trait dependency or dependent personality disorder (DPD) engage in behaviors that harm themselves and others (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse). Method Six domains of literature were reviewed: (a) dependency as a risk factor for physical illness; (b) health care utilization and expenditures; (c) global and domain-specific functional impairment; (d) violence toward others; (e) victimization by others; and (f) self-harm. ResultsHigh levels of trait dependency and DPD are associated with elevated risk for physical illness, partner and child abuse, and suicidality, as well as with high levels of functional impairment and increased health care expenditure. Conclusions Contrary to clinical lore, trait dependency and DPD are associated with behaviors that lead to myriad negative consequences for the dependent person, those close to them, and society as a whole. These patterns have noteworthy implications for assessment and treatment of dependent patients and suggest that DPD should be included as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Clin. Psychol. 68:766-781, 2012Journal of Clinical Psychology 07/2012; 68(7). DOI:10.1002/jclp.21870 · 2.12 Impact Factor
Article: Neediness and depression in women.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In a 6-month longitudinal design, the authors examined the links between neediness and increases in depressive symptoms in women. Neediness was assessed with the self-report Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), supplemented by a projective measure that assessed an important component of dependency, oral dependency, on the Rorschach. Results indicate that neediness correlated significantly with increases in depressive symptoms over the 6 months. Orality interacted with neediness to substantially increase the prediction of increases in depressive symptoms.Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 03/2014; 78(1):16-33. DOI:10.1521/bumc.2014.78.1.16 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Psychoanalysis represents a valuable unifying framework for 21st century personality assessment, with the potential to enhance both research and clinical practice. After reviewing recent trends in psychological testing I discuss how psychoanalytic principles can be used to conceptualize and integrate personality assessment data. Research from three domains—the role of projection in shaping Rorschach responses, contrasting patterns of gender differences in self-report and free-response dependency measures, and the use of process dissociation procedures to illuminate test score convergences and divergences—illustrates how psychoanalytic concepts may be combined with ideas and findings from other areas of psychology to offer unique insights regarding assessment-based personality dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)Psychoanalytic Psychology 03/2010; 27(2):133-152. DOI:10.1037/a0015486 · 0.83 Impact Factor