Explicit Rejection of an Implicit Dichotomy: Integrating Two Approaches to Assessing Dependency

Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA.
Journal of Personality Assessment (Impact Factor: 1.84). 02/2008; 90(1):26-35. DOI: 10.1080/00223890701468584
Source: PubMed


The field of personality theory and assessment is characterized by a long-standing divide between proponents of self-report and indirect approaches to assessment. This article reviews the increasing convergence between the two sides, using recent writings on interpersonal dependency as an example domain. The assumptions of the self-report approach to personality assessment are contrasted with those of the indirect, and research using both types of assessments is reviewed. Also considered is the importance of recognizing dissociations between a particular individual's scores on self-report and indirect measures of a given component of self-concept, and the possible implications of such dissociations. It is argued that the convergence between two traditionally disparate approaches is likely to develop, in light of hypotheses, data and conclusions that bear notable similarity.

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    • "In this study, we assess dependent vulnerability to depression (e.g., Besser, Flett, & Davis, 2003; Besser, Priel, Flett, & Wiznitzer , 2007; Campos et al., 2010; Klein, 1989; Ouimette & Klein, 1993; Robins, Hayes, Block, Kramer, & Villena, 1995) with a more direct self-report measure, the Neediness maladaptive (immature ) subfactor of the DEQ Dependency factor, which includes items related to a preoccupation with abandonment and separation , feelings of being unloved, and fear of loss (Blatt, Zohar, Quinlan, Luthar, & Hart, 1996; Blatt et al., 1995; Campos et al., 2010; Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2011; Rude & Burnham, 1995), supplemented by a more indirect measure of dependency—oral responses (orality) on the Rorschach that Cogswell (2008) identified as an important component of dependency. "
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    ABSTRACT: In a 6-month longitudinal design, the authors examined the links between neediness and increases in depressive symptoms in women. Neediness was assessed with the self-report Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), supplemented by a projective measure that assessed an important component of dependency, oral dependency, on the Rorschach. Results indicate that neediness correlated significantly with increases in depressive symptoms over the 6 months. Orality interacted with neediness to substantially increase the prediction of increases in depressive symptoms.
    Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 03/2014; 78(1):16-33. DOI:10.1521/bumc.2014.78.1.16 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    • "The present study provided additional evidence for the usefulness and generalizability of IAT-derived implicit measures of personality and self-concept. As discussed in Cogswell (2008), it is likely that the momentum that exists in research on indirect measurement of dependency cannot be extended easily into other personality domains, due to its reliance on a Rorschach index as the indirect measure. Although the ROD scale has demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and is generally accepted as a valid dependency measure (e.g., Garb, Wood, Lilienfeld, & Nezworski, 2005), the ROD scale is one of the most wellvalidated of the Rorschach indices. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.
    Journal of Personality Assessment 07/2010; 92(4):306-16. DOI:10.1080/00223891.2010.481986 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    • "Whilst the implicit association concept as attitude measure has attracted much interest in the past decade, it has also faced with criticism. Using multiple assessments that include a combination of implicit and explicit measures is a highly recommended approach to help the deconvolution of this dissociation between explicit and implicit tests [81]. Researchers investigating socially sensitive issues such as doping and drug use are encouraged to experiment with implicit measures for two distinct reasons. "
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding athletes' attitudes and behavioural intentions towards performance enhancement is critical to informing anti-doping intervention strategies. Capturing the complexity of these attitudes beyond verbal declarations requires indirect methods. This pilot study was aimed at developing and validating a method to assess implicit doping attitudes using an Implicit Associations Test (IAT) approach. The conventional IAT evaluation task (categorising 'good' and 'bad' words) was combined with a novel 'doping' versus 'nutrition supplements' category pair to create a performance-enhancement related IAT protocol (PE-IAT). The difference between average response times to 'good-doping' and 'bad-doping' combinations represents an estimate of implicit attitude towards doping in relation to nutritional supplements. 111 sports and exercise science undergraduates completed the PE-IAT, the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) and answered questions regarding their beliefs about doping. Longer response times were observed in the mixed category discrimination trials where categories 'good' and 'doping' shared the same response key (compared to 'bad-doping' combination on the same key) indicating a less favourable evaluation of doping substances. The PE-IAT measure did not correlate significantly with the declared doping attitudes (r = .181, p = .142), indicating a predictable partial dissociation. Action-oriented self-report expressed stronger associations with PE-IAT: participants who declared they would consider using doping showed significantly less implicit negativity towards banned substances (U = 109.00, p = .047). Similarly, those who reported more lenient explicit attitudes towards doping or expressly supported legalizing it, showed less implicit negativity towards doping in the sample, although neither observed differences reached statistical significance (t = 1.300, p = .198, and U = 231.00, p = .319, respectively). Known-group validation strategy yielded mixed results: while competitive sport participants scored significantly lower than non-competitive ones on the PEAS (t = -2.71, p = .008), the two groups did not differ on PE-IAT (t = -.093, p = .926). The results suggest a potential of the PE-IAT method to capture undeclared attitudes to doping and predict behaviour, which can support targeted anti-doping intervention and related research. The initial evidence of validity is promising but also indicates a need for improvement to the protocol and stimulus material.
    Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy 02/2008; 3(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1747-597X-3-9 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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