Factorial invariance and stability of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Scales: a longitudinal analysis of two samples with different time lags.

Department of Technology Management, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.63). 03/2008; 15(1):62-72. DOI: 10.1080/10705500701783959
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Key measures of Siegrist's (1996) Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model (i.e., efforts, rewards, and overcommitment) were psychometrically tested.
To study change in organizational interventions, knowledge about the type of change underlying the instruments used is needed. Next to assessing baseline factorial validity and reliability, the factorial stability over time - known as alpha-beta-gamma change - of the ERI scales was examined.
Psychometrics were tested among 383 and 267 healthcare workers from two Dutch panel surveys with different time lags.
Baseline results favored a five-factor model (i.e., efforts, esteem rewards, financial/career-related aspects, job security, and overcommitment) over and above a three-factor solution (i.e., efforts, composite rewards, and overcommitment). Considering changes as a whole, particularly the factor loadings of the three ERI scales were not equal over time. Findings suggest in general that moderate changes in the ERI factor structure did not affect the interpretation of mean changes over time.
Occupational health researchers utilizing the ERI scales can feel confident that self-reported changes are more likely to be due to factors other than structural change of the ERI scales over time, which has important implications for evaluating job stress and health interventions.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was, first, to identify long-term patterns of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and over-commitment (OVC), and, second, to examine how occupational well-being (burnout, work engagement) and recovery experiences (psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery and control) differ in these patterns. The study was based on follow-up data with three measurement points (2006, 2008, 2010) collected from Finnish managers (N=298). Latent Profile Analysis resulted in five long-term ERI-OVC patterns: a high-risk pattern (high ERI, high OVC), found in 20% of the participants; a low-risk pattern (low ERI, low OVC), found in 24% of participants; a relatively low-risk pattern (low ERI, moderate OVC), found in 47% of participants; a favourable change pattern (decreasing ERI and OVC), in 7%; and an unfavourable change pattern (high ERI with increasing linear trend, OVC with curvilinear trend) in 2%. The results showed, in line with the ERI model, that managers in the high-risk pattern showed higher burnout scores and poorer recovery experiences compared to those in the low-risk patterns. However, no differences were found in work engagement between the high and low-risk patterns. Thus, the ERI model seemed better to explain stress-related indicators of occupational well-being than motivational indicators.
    Work and Stress 02/2013; 27(1):64-87. DOI:10.1080/02678373.2013.765670 · 3.00 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this contribution it is argued that the analysis of exchange characteristics of core social roles in adult life offers a promising approach towards studying the social bases of stress-related diseases. More specifically, the theoretical model of effort-reward imbalance claims that the violation of a core principle of social exchange, reciprocity, elicits sustained stress reactions with adverse long-term effects on health. This model has been extensively tested with regard to the work role, and a brief review of empirical evidence is given, based on findings from prospective epidemiological studies. Taken together, results demonstrate that the risk of incident stress-related disease, such as coronary heart disease or depression, is about twice as high in men and women scoring high on effort-reward imbalance at work compared to non-exposed people. Finally, recent extensions of the theoretical model beyond the work role and beyond health as the main study outcome are discussed, illustrating the utility of this concept for general sociology.
    Social Theory & Health 11/2009; 7(4). DOI:10.1057/sth.2009.17 · 0.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to make valid conclusions about individual change in work-related risk factors it is important to examine whether these factors are measurement invariant over time. We tested the measurement invariance of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) scales using the ERI Questionnaire (ERI-Q). Additionally, we examined the criterion validity of the ERI scales. The sample used in this study was population-based and comprised 2128 participants (56.6% women) in full-time employment. Data on effort, reward and self-reported general stress were collected in 2007 and 2012. Measurement invariance was assessed separately for the effort and reward scales, with reward treated as a first-order and as a second-order variable. Criterion validity of the ERI scales was also examined using a single-item measure of general stress. Effort and reward were found to be measurement invariant over time, that is, they measured the same latent variable across both time points. Furthermore, ERI and its components showed adequate criterion validity, and effort was additionally found to prospectively predict general stress 5 years later (β=0.072, 95% CI 0.013 to 0.131). Our results indicate that changes in the scores of the ERI scales are more likely caused by changes in perceptions of work characteristics than by changes in the construct of the scales. Additionally, the results support the criterion validity of ERI and its components.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 02/2014; DOI:10.1136/oemed-2013-101947 · 3.23 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 23, 2014