Factorial invariance and stability of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Scales: A longitudinal analysis of two samples with different time-lags

Department of Technology Management, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.63). 03/2008; 15(1):62-72. DOI: 10.1080/10705500701783959
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Key measures of Siegrist's (1996) Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model (i.e., efforts, rewards, and overcommitment) were psychometrically tested.
To study change in organizational interventions, knowledge about the type of change underlying the instruments used is needed. Next to assessing baseline factorial validity and reliability, the factorial stability over time - known as alpha-beta-gamma change - of the ERI scales was examined.
Psychometrics were tested among 383 and 267 healthcare workers from two Dutch panel surveys with different time lags.
Baseline results favored a five-factor model (i.e., efforts, esteem rewards, financial/career-related aspects, job security, and overcommitment) over and above a three-factor solution (i.e., efforts, composite rewards, and overcommitment). Considering changes as a whole, particularly the factor loadings of the three ERI scales were not equal over time. Findings suggest in general that moderate changes in the ERI factor structure did not affect the interpretation of mean changes over time.
Occupational health researchers utilizing the ERI scales can feel confident that self-reported changes are more likely to be due to factors other than structural change of the ERI scales over time, which has important implications for evaluating job stress and health interventions.

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    • "However, knowledge on the measurement invariance of the scales is scarce. In a Dutch panel study on 383 (first wave) and 267 (second wave) healthcare workers (80-90% women) with a 1 to 2 years follow-up, the factor loadings of the effort-reward imbalance scales were found not to be invariant over time, but the changes were relatively small and may have been related to the use of a two-step format of the ERI- Q [17]. A Finnish study on 758 white-collar professionals (14-17% women) on the other hand showed that the effort-reward imbalance scales were invariant across time (4-year follow-up time) [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In order to make valid conclusions about individual change in work-related risk factors it is important to examine whether these factors are measurement invariant over time. We tested the measurement invariance of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) scales using the ERI Questionnaire (ERI-Q). Additionally, we examined the criterion validity of the ERI scales. The sample used in this study was population-based and comprised 2128 participants (56.6% women) in full-time employment. Data on effort, reward and self-reported general stress were collected in 2007 and 2012. Measurement invariance was assessed separately for the effort and reward scales, with reward treated as a first-order and as a second-order variable. Criterion validity of the ERI scales was also examined using a single-item measure of general stress. Effort and reward were found to be measurement invariant over time, that is, they measured the same latent variable across both time points. Furthermore, ERI and its components showed adequate criterion validity, and effort was additionally found to prospectively predict general stress 5 years later (β=0.072, 95% CI 0.013 to 0.131). Our results indicate that changes in the scores of the ERI scales are more likely caused by changes in perceptions of work characteristics than by changes in the construct of the scales. Additionally, the results support the criterion validity of ERI and its components.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 02/2014; DOI:10.1136/oemed-2013-101947 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Overcommitment was only measured at follow-up. Since overcommitment is considered to be partly a personality trait [54] and has been observed to be stable over time [13], we considered this measurement as a valid one to approximate the baseline measure. Overcommitment was measured with the recommended [56] and validated [42] 6-item French version scale. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study investigated gender-specific interaction between effort-reward imbalance and video display unit (VDU) postural risk factors at work on the incidence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms in the shoulder-neck, lower back and upper limbs regions. Participants: A cohort of 2,431 VDU users - consisting of white-collar workers in three Canadian public service organizations - was assessed on postural risk factors and effort-reward imbalance at work. Methods: After a mean follow-up time of three years, the six-month incidence proportion of musculoskeletal symptoms in each body region was measured. Interaction was estimated with the attributable proportion of cases due to interaction. Results: For women, two significant attributable proportions due to interaction between effort-reward imbalance and postural risk factors were observed in the shoulder-neck (64%) and upper limbs (57%) regions, while an interaction of 25%, although not significant, was observed in the lower back. No interaction was observed for men. Conclusions: This interaction means that, among women, when effort-reward imbalance and postural risk factors are simultaneously present, the incidence of musculoskeletal symptoms is greater than the sum of effects of the individual factors. Successful interventions on either one of these exposures would thus have the supplemental benefit of preventing cases due to interaction.
    Work 05/2012; 44(2). DOI:10.3233/WOR-2012-1357 · 0.52 Impact Factor
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    • "Our analyses of the CSS will shed some light on the question whether career satisfaction is reconceptualized over time (i.e., gamma change), whether there is some individual calibration of the measurement instrument (i.e., beta change), or whether there is a 'true' quantitative change over time (i.e., alpha change; cf. Chan, 1998; de Jonge et al., 2008; Golembiewski et al., 1975). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present research analyses the adequacy of the widely used Career Satisfaction Scale (CSS; Greenhaus, Parasuraman, & Wormley, 1990) for measuring change over time. We used data of a sample of 1,273 professionals over a 5-year time period. First, we tested longitudinal measurement invariance of the CSS. Second, we analysed changes in career satisfaction by means of multiple indicator latent growth modelling (MLGM). Results revealed that the CSS can be reliably used in mean change analyses. Altogether, career satisfaction was relatively stable over time; however, we found significant variance in intra-individual growth trajectories and a negative correlation between the initial level of and changes in career satisfaction. Professionals who were initially highly satisfied became less satisfied over time. Theoretical and practical implications with respect to the construct of career satisfaction and its development over time (i.e., alpha, beta, and gamma change) are discussed.
    05/2011; 84(2):315 - 326. DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8325.2011.02028.x
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