Article

Cognition and brain imaging in type 1 diabetes

Joslin Diabetes Center, 1 Joslin Place, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Current Diabetes Reports (Impact Factor: 3.38). 05/2008; 8(2):132-7. DOI: 10.1007/s11892-008-0024-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Type 1 diabetes has mild effects on cognition that are influenced by age of onset, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemic episodes. Some of these changes occur quite early in the disease course. Studies using relatively new brain imaging techniques have also shown brain changes in adults and children that appear to be influenced by metabolic abnormalities present in diabetes. Early detections of brain changes may be early indicators of subsequent cognitive abnormalities.

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    • "Neuroimaging studies indicate that acute hypo - or hyperglycemia is related to neu - robiological changes ( Wootton - Gorges & Glaser , 2007 ; Musen , 2008 ) . However , some authors question the negative impact of hypoglycemia , especially when diabetes is controlled restric - tively ( Musen et al , 2008 ) . Research shows that frequent hyperglycemia is related to externaliz - ing problems ( McDonnel et al , 2007 ) , whereas sustained improvement in behavior control is observed after commencement of insulin pump therapy ( Knight et al , 2009 , 2011 ) . "
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    ABSTRACT: Symptom control in chronic illnesses like diabetes type 1 and asthma may be related to children's self-regulation both negatively and positively. We show how quality of symptom control is related to parents' and children's assessments of their self-regulatory skills (eg. behavioral inhibition, shifting, planning, monitoring and emotional control). Children with both chronic illnesses are compared with healthy peers and children with ADHD. According to parent's reports patients with diabetes with a history of acute hipo-or hyperglycemia and higher glycated hemoglobin as well as patients with poorly controlled asthma symptoms, more intensive treatment and acute attacks manifest more problems in self-regulation than their healthy peers but less than children with ADHD. Children with diabetes with low-glycated hemoglobin assess their behavior regulation better than their healthy peers.
    Polish Journal of Applied Psychology 01/2013; 12(2):169-185. DOI:10.2478/v10167-010-0069-2
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    • "Neuroimaging studies indicate that acute hypo - or hyperglycemia is related to neu - robiological changes ( Wootton - Gorges & Glaser , 2007 ; Musen , 2008 ) . However , some authors question the negative impact of hypoglycemia , especially when diabetes is controlled restric - tively ( Musen et al , 2008 ) . Research shows that frequent hyperglycemia is related to externaliz - ing problems ( McDonnel et al , 2007 ) , whereas sustained improvement in behavior control is observed after commencement of insulin pump therapy ( Knight et al , 2009 , 2011 ) . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Symptom control in chronic illnesses like diabetes type 1 and asthma may be related to children's self-regulation both negatively and positively. We show how quality of symptom control is related to parents' and children's assessments of their self-regulatory skills (eg. behavioral inhibition, shifting, planning, monitoring and emotional control). Children with both chronic illnesses are compared with healthy peers and children with ADHD. According to parent's reports patients with diabetes with a history of acute hipo-or hyperglycemia and higher glycated hemoglobin as well as patients with poorly controlled asthma symptoms, more intensive treatment and acute attacks manifest more problems in self-regulation than their healthy peers but less than children with ADHD. Children with diabetes with low-glycated hemoglobin assess their behavior regulation better than their healthy peers.
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    • "Structural imaging studies provide additional examples of neurological complications shared by diabetes patients and patients with depressive illness (Musen, 2008; van Harten et al., 2006). These approaches identified a number of morphological abnormalities in T1DM patients, including cortical atrophy (Perros et al., 1997; Ferguson et al., 2005; Musen et al., 2006; Lunetta et al., 1994; Perantie et al., 2007; Northam et al., 2009), white matter hyperintensities (Ferguson et al., 2003; Perros et al., 1997), as well as reduced white matter densities (Perantie et al., 2007; Northam et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder resulting from inadequate insulin release and/or reduced insulin sensitivity. The complications of diabetes are well characterized in peripheral tissues, but there is a growing appreciation that the complications of diabetes extend to the central nervous system (CNS). One of the potential neurological complications of diabetes is cognitive deficits. Interestingly, the structural, electrophysiological, neurochemical and anatomical underpinnings responsible for cognitive deficits in diabetes are strikingly similar to those observed in animals subjected to chronic stress, as well as in patients with stress-related psychiatric illnesses such as major depressive disorder. Since diabetes is a chronic metabolic stressor, this has led to the suggestion that common mechanistic mediators are responsible for neuroplasticity deficits in both diabetes and depression. Moreover, these common mechanistic mediators may be responsible for the increase in the risk of depressive illness in diabetes patients. In view of these observations, the aims of this review are (1) to describe the neuroplasticity deficits observed in diabetic rodents and patients; (2) to summarize the similarities in the clinical and preclinical studies of depression and diabetes; and (3) to highlight the diabetes-induced neuroplasticity deficits in those brain regions that have been implicated as important pathological centers in depressive illness, namely, the hippocampus, the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex.
    Experimental Neurology 02/2011; 233(1):68-78. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2011.02.004
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