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    ABSTRACT: Standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) consists of a combination of three active drugs. The selection of these drugs varies considerably according to the clinical scenario. The «gold standard» in patients initiating ART is tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC)/efavirenz. TDF/FTC is also considered a combination of choice when, for various reasons, ART is initiated with a boosted protease inhibitor. Abacavir and lamivudine (ABC/3TC) is also considered a combination of choice in most clinical practice guidelines. HLA-B*5701 determination minimizes the possibility of hypersensitivity to ABC and is a positive datum for the use of ABC/3TC. However, negative findings from the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV drugs (DAD) and ACTG5202 studies on this combination should be bourne in mind. TDF can also be a good choice for substituting another nucleoside analogue to avoid or reverse certain toxicities in patients with good virological control. Substituting thymidine analogues for TDF improves lipid profile and produces partial recuperation of subcutaneous fat. Because of the profile of resistance to TDF, this drug continues to be active in most patients with one, or even several, therapeutic failures. TDF plays an especially important role in patients coinfected with hepatotrophic viruses. In summary, TDF is a widely used drug in clinical practice due to its excellent combination of effectiveness, durability and tolerability, in addition to its ease of administration in a single daily dose, whether in its individual formulation (Viread®), or associated with FTC (Truvada®), or with FTC and efavirenz (Atripla®).
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 06/2008; 26:45-54. DOI:10.1016/S0213-005X(08)76531-5 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    Clinical Infectious Diseases 11/2008; 47(7):984-5. DOI:10.1086/591802 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is a validated first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. The once-daily combination of lamivudine, tenofovirDF and nevirapine has not been evaluated in a clinical trial. Randomized, open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority trial comparing lamivudine, tenofovirDF and nevirapine once daily (Group 2) with zidovudine/lamivudine and nevirapine twice daily (Group 1), in naive HIV-1-infected patients with a CD4 count <350/mm(3). We planned to enroll 250 patients. As of May 2006, 71 patients had been enrolled (35 in Group 1 and 36 in Group 2) and an unplanned interim analysis was done. The groups were comparable at baseline: median CD4 count was 195 and 191/mm(3) and median plasma viral load was 4.9 log(10) and 5.01 log(10), respectively, in Groups 1 and 2. Eight early non-responses (22.2%) were observed, all in Group 2, while two later viral rebounds occurred. Resistance genotypes for the nine Group 2 failing patients showed the mutations M184V/I (n = 3), K65R (n = 6), one or more NNRTI resistance mutations in all cases. At baseline, the nine Group 2 patients who failed had higher median plasma viral load (5.4 log(10)) and lower median CD4 count (110/mm(3)) than the other Group 2 patients (4.7 log(10), P = 0.002 and 223/mm(3), P = 0.004). Nevirapine trough concentrations were not different between the two groups, nor between patients with full viral suppression or those who failed in Group 2. Due to slow recruitment, and those results, the steering committee decided to stop the trial at 12 months. In ARV-naive HIV-1-infected patients, the once-daily lamivudine, tenofovirDF and nevirapine regimen resulted in a high rate of early virological failures. The reasons for the failures remain unclear.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12/2008; 63(2):380-8. DOI:10.1093/jac/dkn471 · 5.44 Impact Factor