Coinfection with HIV-1 and simian foamy virus in West Central Africans.
ABSTRACT Frequent infection with zoonotic simian foamy virus (SFV) has been reported among HIV-negative primate hunters in rural Cameroon. Plasma samples obtained from urban commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 139), patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 41), and blood donors (n = 179) in the Democratic Republic of Congo [formerly known as Zaire] and Cameroon were tested for SFV and HIV-1 infection. One CSW and one blood donor were found to be seropositive for both SFV and HIV-1, thereby documenting what are, to our knowledge, the first reported cases of dual SFV and HIV infection. The findings of the present study suggest opportunities for bloodborne and sexual transmission of SFV and highlight the importance of defining the clinical consequences of dual infections.
Article: Evidence for selection at HIV host susceptibility genes in a West Central African human population.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV-1 derives from multiple independent transfers of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains from chimpanzees to human populations. We hypothesized that human populations in west central Africa may have been exposed to SIV prior to the pandemic, and that previous outbreaks may have selected for genetic resistance to immunodeficiency viruses. To test this hypothesis, we examined the genomes of Biaka Western Pygmies, who historically resided in communities within the geographic range of the central African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) that carries strains of SIV ancestral to HIV-1. RESULTS: SNP genotypes of the Biaka were compared to those of African human populations who historically resided outside the range of P. t. troglodytes, including the Mbuti Eastern Pygmies. Genomic regions showing signatures of selection were compared to the genomic locations of genes reported to be associated with HIV infection or pathogenesis. In the Biaka, a strong signal of selection was detected at CUL5, which codes for a component of the vif-mediated APOBEC3 degradation pathway. A CUL5 allele protective against AIDS progression was fixed in the Biaka. A signal of selection was detected at TRIM5, which codes for an HIV post-entry restriction factor. A protective mis-sense mutation in TRIM5 had the highest frequency in Biaka compared to other African populations, as did a protective allele for APOBEC3G, which codes for an anti-HIV-1 restriction factor. Alleles protective against HIV-1 for APOBEC3H, CXCR6 and HLA-C were at higher frequencies in the Biaka than in the Mbuti. Biaka genomes showed a strong signal of selection at TSG101, an inhibitor of HIV-1 viral budding. CONCLUSIONS: We found protective alleles or evidence for selection in the Biaka at a number of genes associated with HIV-1 infection or progression. Pygmies have also been reported to carry genotypes protective against HIV-1 for the genes CCR5 and CCL3L1. Our hypothesis that HIV-1 may have shaped the genomes of some human populations in West Central Africa appears to merit further investigation.BMC Evolutionary Biology 12/2012; 12(1):237. · 3.52 Impact Factor
Article: Frequent and recent human acquisition of simian foamy viruses through apes' bites in central Africa.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human infection by simian foamy viruses (SFV) can be acquired by persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP) or in natural settings. This study aimed at getting better knowledge on SFV transmission dynamics, risk factors for such a zoonotic infection and, searching for intra-familial dissemination and the level of peripheral blood (pro)viral loads in infected individuals. We studied 1,321 people from the general adult population (mean age 49 yrs, 640 women and 681 men) and 198 individuals, mostly men, all of whom had encountered a NHP with a resulting bite or scratch. All of these, either Pygmies (436) or Bantus (1085) live in villages in South Cameroon. A specific SFV Western blot was used and two nested PCRs (polymerase, and LTR) were done on all the positive/borderline samples by serology. In the general population, 2/1,321 (0.2%) persons were found to be infected. In the second group, 37/198 (18.6%) persons were SFV positive. They were mostly infected by apes (37/39) FV (mainly gorilla). Infection by monkey FV was less frequent (2/39). The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83%) are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. The (pro)viral load in 33 individuals infected by a gorilla FV was quite low (<1 to 145 copies per 10(5) cells) in the peripheral blood leucocytes. Of the 30 wives and 12 children from families of FV infected persons, only one woman was seropositive in WB without subsequent viral DNA amplification. We demonstrate a high level of recent transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings specifically following severe gorilla bites during hunting activities. The virus was found to persist over several years, with low SFV loads in infected persons. Secondary transmission remains an open question.PLoS Pathogens 10/2011; 7(10):e1002306. · 9.13 Impact Factor
Article: Frequent acquisition of simian foamy viruses from gorillas, chimpanzees and monkeys through severe bites in central African hunters with no evidence for intra-familial disseminationRetrovirology 04/2012; 8:1-1. · 6.47 Impact Factor