Segmental glomerular lesions at the tubular opening, or tip changes, are found in the renal biopsies of adults in many disorders, including some initially considered to show minimal change nephropathy. The hypothesis was that similar tip changes occurred in children. We reviewed a consecutive series of 50 biopsies, diagnosed as minimal change nephropathy, from 49 children. Segmental lesions were found in five biopsies. One biopsy showed lesions at the glomerular hilum. The patient was in remission at follow-up. Four biopsies showed only tip changes. Three patients were in remission, two on no treatment at follow-up, and one on ciclosporin. The other had chronic hepatitis B infection, with persistent proteinuria and segmental lesions at different sites in glomeruli. The other 44 children were nearly all in remission, 18 without treatment at follow-up, and the rest on various immunosuppressants, but one had persistent proteinuria and multiple segmental lesions. Series of childhood minimal change nephropathy, similar to this one, are likely to include cases of the glomerular tip lesion, under the original definition of minimal change nephropathy plus tip changes. This should make little difference in clinical practice, because the clinical course should resemble that of minimal change nephropathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a descriptive pathologic diagnosis that in certain clinical situations (ie, primary or idiopathic) becomes its own disease. The clinical diversity, varied histology, and nonspecific morphologic features of FSGS all contribute to the complexity and problematic nature in making a pathologic diagnosis of FSGS. The definitions of the disease and of the morphologic features have evolved during the last century.
To review historic and morphologic features of FSGS in order to demonstrate a practical approach in achieving a pathologic diagnosis of FSGS on kidney tissue.
In 2004 a working proposal on the pathologic (morphologic) classification of FSGS was published in an attempt to unify the complexity of diagnosing FSGS, and it has shown to be both reproducible and with unique clinical implications for each defined FSGS variant.
An accurate diagnosis of FSGS can be challenging. During the last few decades, numerous new scientific discoveries have enriched our knowledge of pathogenetic mechanisms of nephrotic syndrome. Thus, it is expected there will be a need for a further modification to a morphologic classification and that the pathologist's role in diagnosing FSGS will remain in evolution. This review recapitulates the history of the pathologic diagnosis of FSGS and a current morphologic classification, hopefully opening up a discussion for further modifications that reflect the status of knowledge evolving in the 21st century.
Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 03/2009; 133(2):217-23. DOI:10.1043/1543-2165-133.2.217 · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) tip variant remains unclear. With the aim to determine its clinical and histological features, and natural history, we studied our cases of patients with this glomerular lesion.
This is a retrospective analysis. All native renal biopsies from patients diagnosed as FSGS, between 1998 and 2006, were revised for cases with tip variant. Glomerulosclerosis (GS), segmental lesions and interstitial fibrosis (IF) were quantified. We analysed clinical and follow-up data and compared with cases of FSGS not otherwise specified (NOS).
In 248 primary FSGS cases, 37 corresponded to tip variant (14.9%). Median age was 17 years (range 1-65); 13 (35.1%) patients were <15 years old, and 56.8% were males. All patients had nephrotic proteinuria. At diagnosis, there were no significant differences for age, renal function and proteinuria between cases with NOS and tip variant. IF, GS and percentage of glomeruli with segmental lesions were higher in NOS than GTL (P < 0.01). At follow-up (n = 25), 15 patients received steroids alone, and 10 steroids and a cytotoxic agent. At a median follow-up of 48.7 months (24.3-86.7), 7 patients (28.0%) progressed to chronic kidney disease (CKD), 4 (16.0%) developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 9 (36.0%) had complete remission. In NOS patients (n = 93), 48 (51.6%) developed CKD (P = 0.04), 20 (21.5%) developed ESRD (P = 0.54%) and 13 (14.0%) had complete remission (P = 0.02).
Our work does not demonstrate a clearly favourable prognosis in a group of patients with FSGS tip variant. Although in the tip variant there are less chronic renal tissue damage and CKD, and more frequent complete remission of the nephrotic syndrome, there is an important percentage of patients who develop CKD and ESRD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The term 'focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)' has been applied to many different conditions. All classifications of 'FSGS', including those describing 'variants', perpetuate the misconceptions that the entities included have something in common and that the term 'FSGS' has some value. With a rigorous approach to renal biopsies showing segmental lesions, especially with knowledge of clinical circumstances and with detailed analysis of features such as the appearance of lesions and their position within glomeruli, a pathologist can provide information that is clinically more useful than merely the bald diagnosis 'FSGS'. More precise terms should be used. 'Overload changes' can be used to describe the changes seen in reduced renal mass. 'Tip changes' can be seen in many conditions and are not a disease in themselves. 'The glomerular tip lesion as originally defined' means the occurrence of tip changes in otherwise normal glomeruli, in the nephrotic syndrome. 'Early classical segmental sclerosing glomerulopathy' is the combination of tip changes and otherwise abnormal glomeruli, in the nephrotic syndrome. 'Late classical segmental sclerosing glomerulopathy' means segmental lesions at various sites within glomeruli, in the nephrotic syndrome. 'Collapsing glomerulopathy' is distinctive, and its inclusion in classifications emphasises the lack of specificity of 'FSGS'.
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