Failure of cefoxitin and doxycycline to eradicate endometrial Mycoplasma genitalium and the consequence for clinical cure of pelvic inflammatory disease

University of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, 130 DeSoto Street, 516B Parran Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.
Sexually transmitted infections (Impact Factor: 3.08). 05/2008; 84(5):338-42. DOI: 10.1136/sti.2008.030486
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT As Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), we examined the efficacy of a commonly used PID antimicrobial in treating M genitalium upper genital tract infection.
In the PID Evaluation and Clinical Health study of inpatient versus outpatient treatment, 682 women treated with cefoxitin and doxycycline for clinically suspected PID had stored cervical and endometrial specimens available for analysis. In the current sub study, we compared baseline endometritis, short term treatment failure (continued endometritis and pelvic pain 30 days following treatment) and sequelae among women with and without M genitalium, identified using PCR.
Endometrial M genitalium was associated with baseline endometritis (adjusted OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.5 to 6.1). Among women with a positive baseline M genitalium test, 41% tested positive again 30 days following treatment. Women testing positive compared to those testing negative for M genitalium at baseline had an increased risk of short-term treatment failure (RR 4.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 20.1). Rates of sequelae, including infertility (22%), recurrent PID (31%) and chronic pelvic pain (42%), were high among women testing positive for endometrial M genitalium at baseline. There was a non-significant trend towards increased infertility, chronic pelvic pain and recurrent PID, and decreased pregnancy and live birth following M genitalium infection.
M genitalium is associated with endometritis and short-term PID treatment failure. Cefoxitin and doxycycline, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended PID treatment regimen, is ineffective for the treatment of M genitalium upper genital tract infection.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Introduction: The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the amniotic fluid (AF) microbiology of patients with the diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis at term using both cultivation and molecular techniques; and 2) to examine the relationship between intra-amniotic inflammation with and without microorganisms and placental lesions consistent with acute AF infection. The AF samples obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis from 46 women with clinical signs of chorioamnionitis at term were analyzed using cultivation techniques (for aerobic and anerobic bacteria as well as genital mycoplasmas) and broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). The frequency of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC), intra-amniotic inflammation [defined as an AF interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentration ≥2.6 ng/mL], and placental lesions consistent with acute AF infection (acute histologic chorioamnionitis and/or acute funisitis) were examined according to the results of AF cultivation and PCR/ESI-MS as well as AF IL-6 concentrations. 1) Culture identified bacteria in AF from 46% (21/46) of the participants, whereas PCR/ESI-MS was positive for microorganisms in 59% (27/46) - combining these two tests, microorganisms were detected in 61% (28/46) of patients with clinical chorioamnionitis at term. Eight patients had discordant test results; one had a positive culture and negative PCR/ESI-MS result, whereas seven patients had positive PCR/ESI-MS results and negative cultures. 2) Ureaplasma urealyticum (n=8) and Gardnerella vaginalis (n=10) were the microorganisms most frequently identified by cultivation and PCR/ESI-MS, respectively. 3) When combining the results of AF culture, PCR/ESI-MS and AF IL-6 concentrations, 15% (7/46) of patients did not have intra-amniotic inflammation or infection, 6.5% (3/46) had only MIAC, 54% (25/46) had microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation, and 24% (11/46) had intra-amniotic inflammation without detectable microorganisms. 4) Placental lesions consistent with acute AF infection were significantly more frequent in patients with microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation than in those without intra-amniotic inflammation [70.8% (17/24) vs. 28.6% (2/7); P=0.04]. Microorganisms in the AF were identified in 61% of patients with clinical chorioamnionitis at term; 54% had microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation, whereas 24% had intra-amniotic inflammation without detectable microorganisms.
    Journal of Perinatal Medicine 01/2015; 43(1):19-36. DOI:10.1515/jpm-2014-0249 · 1.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health.
    12/2014; 2014:183167. DOI:10.1155/2014/183167
  • Pathology 01/2015; 47:S50. DOI:10.1097/01.PAT.0000461453.96407.8e · 2.62 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 28, 2014