Mitochondrial protein quality control: implications in ageing.
ABSTRACT Mitochondria represent both a major source for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a target for oxidative macromolecular damage. Increased production of ROS and accumulation of oxidized proteins have been associated with cellular ageing. Protein quality control, also referred as protein maintenance, is very important for the elimination of oxidized proteins through degradation and repair. Chaperone proteins have been implicated in refolding of misfolded proteins while oxidized protein repair is limited to the catalyzed reduction of certain oxidation products of the sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine, by specific enzymatic systems. In the mitochondria, oxidation of methionine residues within proteins can be catalytically reversed by the methionine sulfoxide reductases, an ubiquitous enzymatic system that has been implicated both in ageing and protection against oxidative stress. Irreversibly oxidized proteins are targeted to degradation by mitochondrial matrix proteolytic systems such as the Lon protease. The ATP-stimulated Lon protease is believed to play a crucial role in the degradation of oxidized proteins within the mitochondria and age-related declines in the activity and/or expression of this proteolytic system have been previously reported. Age-related impairment of mitochondrial protein maintenance may therefore contribute to the age-associated build-up of oxidized proteins and impairment of mitochondrial redox homeostasis.
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ABSTRACT: Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are thiol-dependent enzymes which catalyze conversion of methionine sulfoxide to methionine. Three Msr families, MsrA, MsrB, and fRMsr, are known. MsrA and MsrB are responsible for the reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide and methionine-R-sulfoxide residues in proteins, respectively, whereas fRMsr reduces free methionine-R-sulfoxide. Besides acting on proteins, MsrA can additionally reduce free methionine-S-sulfoxide. Some MsrAs and MsrBs evolved to utilize catalytic selenocysteine. This includes MsrB1, which is a major MsrB in cytosol and nucleus in mammalian cells. Specialized machinery is used for insertion of selenocysteine into MsrB1 and other selenoproteins at in-frame UGA codons. Selenocysteine offers catalytic advantage to the protein repair function of Msrs, but also makes these proteins dependent on the supply of selenium and requires adjustments in their strategies for regeneration of active enzymes. Msrs have roles in protecting cellular proteins from oxidative stress and through this function they may regulate lifespan in several model organisms.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2009; 1790(11):1471-7. · 4.66 Impact Factor
Article: Possible existence of lysosome-like organella within mitochondria and its role in mitochondrial quality control.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The accumulation of unhealthy mitochondria results in mitochondrial dysfunction, which has been implicated in aging, cancer, and a variety of degenerative diseases. However, the mechanism by which mitochondrial quality is regulated remains unclear. Here, we show that Mieap, a novel p53-inducible protein, induces intramitochondrial lysosome-like organella that plays a critical role in mitochondrial quality control. Mieap expression is directly regulated by p53 and is frequently lost in human cancer as result of DNA methylation. Mieap dramatically induces the accumulation of lysosomal proteins within mitochondria and mitochondrial acidic condition without destroying the mitochondrial structure (designated MALM, for Mieap-induced accumulation of lysosome-like organelles within mitochondria) in response to mitochondrial damage. MALM was not related to canonical autophagy. MALM is involved in the degradation of oxidized mitochondrial proteins, leading to increased ATP synthesis and decreased reactive oxygen species generation. These results suggest that Mieap induces intramitochondrial lysosome-like organella that plays a critical role in mitochondrial quality control by eliminating oxidized mitochondrial proteins. Cancer cells might accumulate unhealthy mitochondria due to p53 mutations and/or Mieap methylation, representing a potential cause of the Warburg effect.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(1):e16054. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are of central importance for energy generation in skeletal muscles. Expression changes or functional alterations in mitochondrial enzymes play a key role during myogenesis, fibre maturation, and various neuromuscular pathologies, as well as natural fibre aging. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics suggests itself as a convenient large-scale and high-throughput approach to catalogue the mitochondrial protein complement and determine global changes during health and disease. This paper gives a brief overview of the relatively new field of mitochondrial proteomics and discusses the findings from recent proteomic surveys of mitochondrial elements in aged skeletal muscles. Changes in the abundance, biochemical activity, subcellular localization, and/or posttranslational modifications in key mitochondrial enzymes might be useful as novel biomarkers of aging. In the long term, this may advance diagnostic procedures, improve the monitoring of disease progression, help in the testing of side effects due to new drug regimes, and enhance our molecular understanding of age-related muscle degeneration.Journal of aging research 01/2011; 2011:908035.