Abnormal CNV in chronic heavy drinkers.
ABSTRACT We used the contingent negative variation (CNV), a slow negative shift in the human electroencephalogram, to investigate the effects of heavy chronic alcohol use on frontal lobe function.
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 30 heavy drinkers (HD) and 30 age-, sex-, and education-matched light or non-drinkers (LD), using a classical two-stimulus reaction time (RT) paradigm. Structural magnetic resonance images and neuropsychological tests were also administered.
The amplitude of the late CNV was significantly reduced in HD relative to light drinkers. Moreover, diminished CNV amplitudes in HD appear to be closely related to the amount of recent alcohol consumption. There were no significant differences in neuropsychological measures of frontal lobe function and frontal lobe volume between light and HD. However, in HD, reduced late CNV amplitudes were associated with decreased frontal lobe gray matter volume and poor performance on the Trail Making Test B. In LD but not in HD, late CNV amplitude correlated positively with RT, suggesting that the late CNV reflects some aspect of motor and cognitive preparation.
The inverse relationships between frontal lobe gray matter volume, performance on the Trail Making Test B, and late CNV amplitude in HD suggest that the ERP abnormalities observed in the current study may be indices of alcohol-related damage to the frontal lobe. The lack of a significant relationship between CNV amplitude and RT in HD suggests that chronic heavy alcohol use may disrupt response preparation.
- SourceAvailable from: Antoni Gual[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A pre-conscious auditory sensory (echoic) memory of about 10 s duration can be studied with the event-related brain potential mismatch negativity (MMN). Previous work indicates that this memory is preserved in abstinent chronic alcoholics for a duration of up to 2 s. The authors' aim was to determine the integrity of auditory sensory memory as indexed by MMN in chronic alcoholism, when this memory has to be functionally active for a longer period of time. The presence of MMN for stimuli that differ in duration was tested at memory probe intervals (MPIs) of 0.4 and 5.0 s in 17 abstinent chronic alcoholic patients and in 17 healthy age-matched control subjects. MMN was similar in alcoholics and controls when the MPI was 0.4 s, whereas MMN could not be observed in the patients when the MPI was increased to 5.0 s. These results provide evidence of an impairment of auditory sensory memory in abstinent chronic alcoholics, whereas the automatic stimulus-change detector mechanism, involved in MMN generation, is preserved.Clinical Neurophysiology 06/2001; 112(5):728-31. · 3.14 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The study of patients undergoing unilateral frontal-lobe excisions for the relief of focal epilepsy has revealed specific cognitive disorders that appear against a background of normal functioning on many intellectual, perceptual and memory tasks. Lesions that invade the frontal eye field cause subtle impairments of voluntary oculomotor control, which reveal themselves as an inability to suppress an initial glance at a potentially distracting stimulus. After frontal lobectomy in either hemisphere, deficits are found quite consistently on motor-differentiation tasks (Konorski 1972) in which the subject must learn to produce different responses to different, randomly presented, environmental signals. More directly related to the concept of planning are those sequential tasks in which the subject is free to choose his own order of responding, but must not make the same response twice. Here the left frontal lobe plays the major role, a finding consistent with the notion of left-hemisphere dominance for the programming of voluntary actions. In contrast, the right frontal lobe appears to be more critically involved in monitoring the temporal sequence of externally ordered events, although the verbal or non-verbal nature of the stimuli remains a relevant factor.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 07/1982; 298(1089):211-26. · 6.23 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We describe a sequence of low-level operations to isolate and classify brain tissue within T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI). Our method first removes nonbrain tissue using a combination of anisotropic diffusion filtering, edge detection, and mathematical morphology. We compensate for image nonuniformities due to magnetic field inhomogeneities by fitting a tricubic B-spline gain field to local estimates of the image nonuniformity spaced throughout the MRI volume. The local estimates are computed by fitting a partial volume tissue measurement model to histograms of neighborhoods about each estimate point. The measurement model uses mean tissue intensity and noise variance values computed from the global image and a multiplicative bias parameter that is estimated for each region during the histogram fit. Voxels in the intensity-normalized image are then classified into six tissue types using a maximum a posteriori classifier. This classifier combines the partial volume tissue measurement model with a Gibbs prior that models the spatial properties of the brain. We validate each stage of our algorithm on real and phantom data. Using data from the 20 normal MRI brain data sets of the Internet Brain Segmentation Repository, our method achieved average kappa indices of kappa = 0.746 +/- 0.114 for gray matter (GM) and kappa = 0.798 +/- 0.089 for white matter (WM) compared to expert labeled data. Our method achieved average kappa indices kappa = 0.893 +/- 0.041 for GM and kappa = 0.928 +/- 0.039 for WM compared to the ground truth labeling on 12 volumes from the Montreal Neurological Institute's BrainWeb phantom.NeuroImage 06/2001; 13(5):856-76. · 6.25 Impact Factor