Insulin sensitivity, food intake, and cravings with premenstrual syndrome: a pilot study.
ABSTRACT The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate possible differences in insulin sensitivity, food intake, and cravings between the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Subjects were screened for PMS using the Penn Daily Symptom Rating (DSR) scale. Each subject had two overnight admissions (once in each cycle phase) to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. They performed 3-day diet histories prior to each hospitalization. After admission, subjects received dinner and a snack, then were fasted until morning, when they underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). Insulin sensitivity was determined by Minimal Model analysis. Blinded analysis of diet histories and inpatient food intake was performed by a registered dietitian.
There was no difference found in insulin sensitivity between cycle phases (n = 7). There were also no differences in proportions of macronutrients or total kilocalories by cycle phase, despite a marked difference in food cravings between cycle phase, with increased food cravings noted in the luteal phase (p = 0.002). Total DSR symptom scores decreased from a mean of 186 (+/-29.0) in the luteal phase to 16.6 (+/-14.2) in the follicular phase. Women in this study consumed relatively high proportions of carbohydrates (55%-64%) in both cycle phases measured.
These findings reinforce the suggestion that although the symptom complaints of PMS are primarily confined to the luteal phase, the neuroendocrine background for this disorder may be consistent across menstrual cycle phases.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Ellen W Freeman, May 30, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Insulin sensitivity is impaired in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and may be enhanced by islet transplantation, an effect best explained by improved metabolic control. While the minimal model index of insulin sensitivity, SI, has been used in studies of T1D, it has not before been evaluated against gold-standard measures derived from the euglycemic clamp. We sought to determine how well minimal model SI derived from an insulin-modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance (FSIGT) test compared to total body and peripheral insulin sensitivity estimates derived from the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp in subjects with T1D and following islet transplantation. Twenty-one T1D subjects were evaluated, including a subgroup (n=12) studied again after intrahepatic islet transplantation, with results compared to normal controls (n=11 for the FSIGT). The transplant recipients received 9648±666 islet equivalents/kg with reduction in HbA1c from 7.1±0.2 to 5.5±0.1% (P<0.01) and 10/12 were insulin-independent. FSIGT derived SI was reduced in T1D pre- compared to post-transplant and to normal (1.76±0.45 vs. 4.21±0.34 vs. 4.45 ±0.81 x10(-4)(μU/ml)(-1)•min(-1); P<0.01 for both). Similarly, clamp derived total body, and by the isotopic dilution method with 6,6-(2)H2-glucose, peripheral insulin sensitivity increased in T1D from pre- to post-transplant (P<0.05 for both). The predictive power (r(2)) between volume corrected SIC and measures of total and peripheral insulin sensitivity was 0.66 and 0.70 respectively (P<0.00001 for both). That the minimal model SIC is highly correlated to the clamp derived measures indicates that the FSIGT is an appropriate methodology for the determination of insulin sensitivity in T1D and following islet transplantation.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 04/2014; 306(10). DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00667.2013 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Materials and Methods: Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat β-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. Results: VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjectsNutrients 09/2014; 6(9):3863-3877. DOI:10.3390/nu6093863 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between premenstrual syndrome and oxidative stress, visfatin and apelin. The study included 40 women with premenstrual syndrome and 40 healthy women. In all subjects, serum visfatin, apelin and oxidative stress parameters were studied in venous blood samples. The oxidative stress parameters were higher in the premenstrual syndrome group than among the controls, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). It was found that total antioxidant capacity was similar in both groups. For the insulin-serotonin cycle markers, no significant difference was found between groups in terms of visfatin level (p = 0.893), although apelin was found to be significantly higher in the premenstrual syndrome group when compared with the controls (p < 0.001). According to our results, apelin can be used as an ancillary laboratory test in the diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome.Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 08/2014; 35(2):1-5. DOI:10.3109/01443615.2014.948399 · 0.60 Impact Factor