A porcine model of intervertebral disc degeneration induced by annular injury characterized with magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological findings: Laboratory investigation
ABSTRACT Appropriate animal models of disc degeneration are critical for the study of proposed interventions as well as to further delineate the degenerative process. The purpose of this study was to characterize a porcine model for disc degeneration confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies and histological analysis.
Twelve miniature pigs were used (weight 48-65 kg) to study degeneration in the lumbar spine. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the disc was percutaneously punctured with a 3.2-mm-diameter trephine to a 5-mm depth into the annulus fibrosus. Control and experimental levels were randomized among 6 levels in the lumbar spine. The unlesioned spinal levels were used as controls and were compared with lesioned levels. Magnetic resonance imaging grading and disc height were serially recorded preoperatively, and at 5, 8, 19, 32, and 39 weeks postoperatively. The animals were killed in groups of 3 at 7, 18, 32, and 41 weeks postinjury, and the discs were examined histopathologically.
Consistent, sequential, and progressive degeneration of the annular injury was observed on MR imaging and histopathological studies from the time of injury to the final time point. The disc height and the disc height index also sequentially decreased from the time of the injury in a consistent manner. The uninjured control levels did not show any progressive degeneration and maintained their normal state.
Based on MR imaging and histopathological findings, the authors demonstrated and characterized a reliable model of sequential disc degeneration in miniature pigs with percutaneous injury to the annulus fibrosus. In the early stages, as soon as 5 weeks after injury, significant disc degeneration was seen on MR imaging grading with decreases in disc height. This degeneration did not improve by the final time point of 39 weeks.
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- "BMP13 treatment resulted in prevention of cell loss (or cell mobilisation), prevention of neo-vascularisation, deposition of collagen fibres in the AF, production of proteoglycans in the NP, and retention of the original disc height. A model of annular injury was also described in miniature pigs, where consistent sequential and progressive degeneration was observed that did not improve by the final time point of 39 weeks (Yoon et al., 2008). Furthermore, a porcine annular puncture model was utilised to test the efficacy of non-cell-based materials to prevent the recurrence of disc herniation (Wang et al., 2007). "
ABSTRACT: Lumbar discectomy is the surgical procedure most frequently performed for patients suffering from low back pain and sciatica. Disc herniation as a consequence of degenerative or traumatic processes is commonly encountered as the underlying cause for the painful condition. While discectomy provides favourable outcome in a majority of cases, there are conditions where unmet requirements exist in terms of treatment, such as large disc protrusions with minimal disc degeneration; in these cases, the high rate of recurrent disc herniation after discectomy is a prevalent problem. An effective biological annular repair could improve the surgical outcome in patients with contained disc herniations but otherwise minor degenerative changes. An attractive approach is a tissue-engineered implant that will enable/stimulate the repair of the ruptured annulus. The strategy is to develop three-dimensional scaffolds and activate them by seeding cells or by incorporating molecular signals that enable new matrix synthesis at the defect site, while the biomaterial provides immediate closure of the defect and maintains the mechanical properties of the disc. This review is structured into (1) introduction, (2) clinical problems, current treatment options and needs, (3) biomechanical demands, (4) cellular and extracellular components, (5) biomaterials for delivery, scaffolding and support, (6) pre-clinical models for evaluation of newly developed cell- and material-based therapies, and (7) conclusions. This article highlights that an interdisciplinary approach is necessary for successful development of new clinical methods for annulus fibrosus repair. This will benefit from a close collaboration between research groups with expertise in all areas addressed in this review.European cells & materials 01/2013; 25:1-21. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To analyze and solve the problem of long-term low damping oscillation phenomena, a method is presented to find the best allocation and to design a power system stabilizer (PSS) for damping inter-area power oscillations. The method is based on the single-machine-infinite-bus models derived from the multi-machine power system by coherency-based reduction technique. Dynamic simulations using a 10-machine power system model are presented in order to show the effectiveness of the PSS designed according to the proposed method.Power System Technology, 2002. Proceedings. PowerCon 2002. International Conference on; 02/2002
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ABSTRACT: Annular tears and nuclear degeneration often occur concurrently, but their temporal association remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess whether annular tears precede nuclear degeneration and whether the evolution of nuclear degeneration is affected by presence of annular tears. From our radiology report data base, 46 patients with back pain were identified, each with 2 previously obtained lumbar spine MR imaging examinations in the absence of any spinal intervention. Two neuroradiologists evaluated intervertebral disks between the T12 and S1 segments in a random blinded fashion. Hyperintense foci within the anulus were noted to diagnose annular tears. The signal intensity of disks was graded on an ordinal scale, and overall degeneration, on the scale of Pfirrmann et al. Mean signal-intensity and degeneration grades were calculated for disks with and without annular tears, and differences were tested for statistical significance. Mean changes in these grades on follow-up studies were also calculated and compared for 2 groups. The study included 13 men and 33 women, with a mean age of 53.6 +/- 15.2 years (range, 20-88 years). The mean interval between the imaging studies was 31.8 months. Annular tears were seen in 203 of 276 (73.5%) disks. Twenty-one of these had normal central signal intensity. Compared with disks without annular tears, disks with annular tears demonstrated significantly higher degeneration grades and a higher change in these grades on follow-up. Annular tears occur in the early stages of disk degeneration and are associated with a faster subsequent nuclear degeneration.American Journal of Neuroradiology 02/2009; 30(3):500-6. DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A1411 · 3.68 Impact Factor