Comparison of scales for evaluating premenstrual symptoms in women using oral contraceptives.
ABSTRACT To compare two scales used in research to evaluate daily premenstrual mood symptoms during use of a monophasic oral contraceptive.
Subanalysis of data from a prospective study.
University-affiliated medical center. SUBJECTS; One hundred two reproductive-aged (18-48 yrs) women taking a monophasic oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone in the standard 21-7 fashion (21 days of hormones followed by 7 days of placebo), and who had self-identified premenstrual symptoms of headache, mood changes, or pelvic pain.
Subjects completed a single-item questionnaire, the Scott & White Daily Diary of Symptoms, and a multiple-item questionnaire, the Penn State Daily Symptom Report (DSR), to assess their premenstrual symptoms. The Scott & White diary used a visual analog scale of 0-10 to assess pelvic pain, headache, and mood (a composite of anxiety, depression, and irritability). The Penn State DSR contained 17 items: 10 behavioral and seven physical components, each rated on a scale of 0-4, with one item that specifically rated mood swings.
Scores from the two scales were compared by using Spearman correlation coefficients, the Kendall W for concordance, and linear regression of ranked sums for study cycles. The Scott & White mood score significantly correlated with the total of the 17 items on the Penn State DSR, as well as the 10 behavioral items, the seven physical items, and the single mood-swing item (p<0.0001); specific coefficients of concordance were 0.44, 0.23, 0.10, and 0.28, respectively, and R2 values were 0.39, 0.39, 0.30, and 0.34, respectively. The daily Scott & White mood score was positively correlated with all 17 elements of the Penn State DSR (0.25-0.57). The greatest correlation was seen with the mood-swing element. Both instruments demonstrated the same patterns during the 21-7 oral contraceptive cycle, with symptoms increasing immediately before and peaking during the 7-day hormone-free interval.
A single-item daily mood score using a rating scale of 0-10 was concordant with a relatively complex 17-element symptom index and demonstrated the same pattern of change during cycles of oral contraception. The simple scoring system offers an advantage, especially in clinical studies of long duration.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Migraine headaches are a significant problem for American women with many of them suffering from headaches around the time of their menstrual cycle. Women taking oral contraceptives in the standard 21/7 cycle regimen often suffer from headaches around the time of the hormone free intervals (HFIs) as well. Extended oral contraceptive regimens have been shown to decrease the frequency, but not eliminate these headaches. This study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of participants with menstrual-related migraines (MRMs) who were initiated on extended combined oral contraceptives and given frovatriptan prophylactically during HFIs. Methods: Participants having spontaneous menstrual cycles or taking daily combined oral contraceptives in a 21/7 regimen with MRMs were placed on a contraceptive containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol. Analyses compared headache scores during pre-study baseline cycles to those in a 168-day extended regimen with placebo versus frovatriptan treatments during HFIs. Results: Daily headache scores decreased (p=0.034) from 1.29±0.10 during pre-study cycles to 1.10±0.14 during extended combined oral contraceptive use. Frovatriptan blocked the increase in headache score over the placebo during HFIs. However, following the withdrawal of frovatriptan, headache scores increased (p>0.01) despite resuming combined oral contraceptive use. Conclusions: Extended combined oral contraceptive regimen reduces MRM severity. Frovatriptan prevents headaches during HFIs, but is associated with new headache symptoms when withdrawn.Journal of Women's Health 01/2014; · 1.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Panic disorder is twice a common in women than in men. In women, susceptibility to panic increases during the late luteal (premenstrual) phase of the menstrual cycle, when progesterone secretion is in rapid decline. This article considers the evidence for the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) as a locus for panic and for the use of PAG stimulation as an animal model of panic in both sexes. We show in females how a rapid fall in progesterone secretion, such as occurs during the late dioestrus phase of the ovarian cycle in rats (similar to the late luteal phase in women), triggers a neuronal withdrawal response during which the excitability of the midbrain panic circuitry increases as a result of upregulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors on inhibitory interneurones in the PAG. The withdrawal effect is due not to the native hormone but to its neuroactive metabolite allopregnanolone. Differences in the kinetics of allopregnanolone metabolism may contribute to individual differences in susceptibility to panic in women.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 01/2014; · 10.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many women in their reproductive years experience some mood, behavioral, or physical symptoms in the week prior to menses. Women experiencing mild symptoms may have a wide variability in the level of symptom burden, whereas a minority suffers severe and debilitating symptoms. Severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects 3% to 5% of women of reproductive age and has been classified under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Both disorders are characterized mainly by symptoms confined to the premenstrual period, which reduce not only patients' quality of life, but also their working activities. Women suffering PMDD experience severe dysphoric mood, and a greater desire and actual intake of certain foods, demonstrating impaired cognitive performance during the luteal phase. Several theories have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanisms of PMS and PMDD with complex bio-psycho-social factors involved. Although precise causes are unknown, the late luteal phase could be associated with diverse psychosomatic and behavioral symptoms appearing premenstrually which should be appropriately treated. Notwithstanding this high prevalence, no specific symptoms or signs appear, nor have any recognizable anatomical factors been identified in women suffering PMS or PMDD, and hence, no universal treatment yet exists. Despite this, therapeutic progress has been reached, although the ideal treatment has not yet been obtained due to the many clusters involved.The Open Psychiatry Journal 01/2009; 3:47-57.