Pharmaceutical residues in the river Rhine--results of a one-decade monitoring programme.
ABSTRACT In this paper, results of an extensive monitoring programme for pharmaceutical residues in the river Rhine are presented. For one decade (1997 until 2006), the occurrence of widely used human pharmaceuticals like analgesics, lipid regulators, antiepileptics and others has been studied at four locations along the river Rhine. The results of more than 500 analyses clearly prove that compounds such as carbamazepine or diclofenac are regularly found in the river Rhine in concentrations up to several hundred ng per litre. Combining concentration levels with data on water flow enables the calculation of transports, which e.g. for carbamazepine or diclofenac were in the range of several tons per year. The evaluation of the long-term monitoring data shows that only a slight decrease in concentration levels as well as in annual transports can be observed and thus the contamination of the river Rhine by pharmaceutical residues during the last decade has to be regarded as almost constant. Seasonal variations can be detected for bezafibrate, diclofenac and ibuprofen, for which the concentrations are much lower in the summer months. A more effective removal during wastewater treatment in the warmer periods of the year seems to be the major reason for those variations. For carbamazepine, no comparable seasonal effect can be found.
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ABSTRACT: The closed basin of the Lower Jordan Valley with the Dead Sea as final sink features high evapotranspiration rates and almost complete reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation farming. This study focuses on the water transfer schemes and the presence, spreading, and potential accumulation of pharmaceutical residues in the local water resources based on findings of a five-year monitoring program. Overall 16 pharmaceuticals and 9 iodinated X-ray contrast media were monitored in groundwater, surface water, and treated wastewater. A total of 95 samples were taken to cover all geographical settings and flow paths from origin (wastewater) to target (groundwater). Nine substances were detected in groundwater, with concentrations ranging between 11ng/L and 33,000ng/L. Sometimes, detection rates were higher than in comparable studies: Diatrizoic acid 75%, iopamidol 42%, iopromide 19%, iomeprol 11%, carbamazepine and iohexol 8%, ibuprofen 6%, and fenofibrate and iothalamic acid 3%. Concentrations in groundwater generally increase from north to south depending on the application of treated wastewater for irrigation. Almost all substances occurred most frequently and with highest concentrations in treated wastewater, followed by surface water and groundwater. As exception, diatrizoic acid was found more frequently in groundwater than in treated wastewater, with concentrations being similar. This indicates the persistence of diatrizoic acid with long residence times in local groundwater systems, but may also reflect changing prescription patterns, which would be in accordance with increasing iopamidol findings and surveys at local hospitals. Trend analyses confirm this finding and indicate a high probability of increasing iopamidol concentrations, while other substances did not reveal any trends. However, no proof of evaporative enrichment could be found. The high spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations measured calls for further systematic studies to assess the long-term evolution of organic trace substances in this reuse setting.Science of The Total Environment 05/2014; 488-489C:100-114. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) residues are being highlighted around the world as of emerging concern in surface waters. Here the occurrence of PPCPs in the central and lower Yangtze River, along with four large freshwater lakes within the river basin (Dongting, Poyang, Tai, and Chao) was reported. Fifteen out of twenty selected PPCPs were detected in the collected surface water samples. Caffeine, paraxanthine, sulfamethazine, and clindamycin were detected with 100 percent frequency in the Yangtze River. In the river, the highest average concentration was observed for erythromycin (296ngL(-1)), followed by caffeine (142ngL(-1)) and paraxanthine (41ngL(-1)). In the four lakes, total PPCP concentrations were much higher in the Chao (1547ngL(-1)) and Tai (1087ngL(-1)) lakes compared to the Poyang (108ngL(-1)) and Dongting (137ngL(-1)) lakes. Lincomycin and clindamycin were most abundant in the lakes, especially in the Tai Lake. Environmental risk assessment for the worst case scenario was assessed using calculated risk quotients, and indicates a high environmental risk of erythromycin and clarithromycin in the Yangtze River, clarithromycin in the Chao Lake, and clindamycin in the Tai Lake.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 05/2014; 106C:19-26. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the ozonation of the antineoplastic drugs cyclophosphamide (CP), ifosfamide (IF), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and of the vasodilator pentoxifylline (PEN) in distilled water, in pharmaceutical wastewater, and in hospital effluent at pH 5-11. Under an alkaline pH of 11, all of the target compounds rapidly degraded through the attack of hydroxyl radicals, which resulted in their complete removal within 5 min at an ozone supply rate of 3 g O3/h. Under acidic pH conditions, such as pH 5.6, CP and IF exhibited slower removal rates; however, compounds with unsaturated C-C bonds, such as 5-FU and PEN, were still removed at rapid rates under acidic conditions. Although the parent compounds were removed within minutes, the resulting ozonation byproducts were resistant to further ozonation and possessed increased Microtox acute toxicity. In distilled water, the resulting ozonation products exhibited minimal mineralization but high acute toxicity, whereas in naturally buffered pharmaceutical and hospital effluents, the byproducts were more amenable to removal and detoxification.Environmental science and pollution research international. 08/2014;