Pharmaceutical residues in the river Rhine--results of a one-decade monitoring programme.
ABSTRACT In this paper, results of an extensive monitoring programme for pharmaceutical residues in the river Rhine are presented. For one decade (1997 until 2006), the occurrence of widely used human pharmaceuticals like analgesics, lipid regulators, antiepileptics and others has been studied at four locations along the river Rhine. The results of more than 500 analyses clearly prove that compounds such as carbamazepine or diclofenac are regularly found in the river Rhine in concentrations up to several hundred ng per litre. Combining concentration levels with data on water flow enables the calculation of transports, which e.g. for carbamazepine or diclofenac were in the range of several tons per year. The evaluation of the long-term monitoring data shows that only a slight decrease in concentration levels as well as in annual transports can be observed and thus the contamination of the river Rhine by pharmaceutical residues during the last decade has to be regarded as almost constant. Seasonal variations can be detected for bezafibrate, diclofenac and ibuprofen, for which the concentrations are much lower in the summer months. A more effective removal during wastewater treatment in the warmer periods of the year seems to be the major reason for those variations. For carbamazepine, no comparable seasonal effect can be found.
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ABSTRACT: The closed basin of the Lower Jordan Valley with the Dead Sea as final sink features high evapotranspiration rates and almost complete reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation farming. This study focuses on the water transfer schemes and the presence, spreading, and potential accumulation of pharmaceutical residues in the local water resources based on findings of a five-year monitoring program. Overall 16 pharmaceuticals and 9 iodinated X-ray contrast media were monitored in groundwater, surface water, and treated wastewater. A total of 95 samples were taken to cover all geographical settings and flow paths from origin (wastewater) to target (groundwater). Nine substances were detected in groundwater, with concentrations ranging between 11ng/L and 33,000ng/L. Sometimes, detection rates were higher than in comparable studies: Diatrizoic acid 75%, iopamidol 42%, iopromide 19%, iomeprol 11%, carbamazepine and iohexol 8%, ibuprofen 6%, and fenofibrate and iothalamic acid 3%. Concentrations in groundwater generally increase from north to south depending on the application of treated wastewater for irrigation. Almost all substances occurred most frequently and with highest concentrations in treated wastewater, followed by surface water and groundwater. As exception, diatrizoic acid was found more frequently in groundwater than in treated wastewater, with concentrations being similar. This indicates the persistence of diatrizoic acid with long residence times in local groundwater systems, but may also reflect changing prescription patterns, which would be in accordance with increasing iopamidol findings and surveys at local hospitals. Trend analyses confirm this finding and indicate a high probability of increasing iopamidol concentrations, while other substances did not reveal any trends. However, no proof of evaporative enrichment could be found. The high spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations measured calls for further systematic studies to assess the long-term evolution of organic trace substances in this reuse setting.Science of The Total Environment 05/2014; 488-489C:100-114. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Removal of pharmaceuticals (PhCs) by photocatalysis is a promising avenue in water treatment. The efficiency of these treatments on PhC derivatives compared to their parent molecules remains poorly documented. The present study investigates the efficiency of photodegradation catalyzed by TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles on the removal of carbamazepine (CBZ) and three of its derivatives; carbamazepine epoxide (CBZ-E), acridine (AI), and acridone (AO). The effects of environmental parameters such as pH, ionic strength, and natural organic matter content on photodegradation efficiency (transformation after 6h and kinetics) were tested. We report that the efficiency of the catalysts (TiO2 and ZnO) can be very different when comparing CBZ and its derivatives (CBZ-E, AI and AO). TiO2 was more efficient than ZnO at degrading CBZ and CBZ-E. For AI and AO, no significant differences were observed between the two catalysts. We also report that environmental parameters have contrasting effects on the efficiency of the photodegradation of CBZ compared to its derivatives. Changing pH and organic matter content had the most contrasted effects; the photodegradation of CBZ and CBZ-E was significantly affected by pH (especially in presence of TiO2 NPs) and by the presence of natural organic matter. In contrast, the photodegradation of AI and AO was not affected by pH and organic matter. Only the photodegradation of CBZ was clearly affected by IS and solely at very high IS (1M). Overall, our results highlight that TiO2 and ZnO catalysts present contrasted efficiency on the removal of CBZ when compared to its derivatives (CBZ-E, AI and AO). Our results also show that the effect of environmental parameters on the efficiency of the photodegradation of CBZ derivatives cannot be predicted based on the behavior of the parent molecule (CBZ).Science of The Total Environment 01/2014; 475C:16-22. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) residues are being highlighted around the world as of emerging concern in surface waters. Here the occurrence of PPCPs in the central and lower Yangtze River, along with four large freshwater lakes within the river basin (Dongting, Poyang, Tai, and Chao) was reported. Fifteen out of twenty selected PPCPs were detected in the collected surface water samples. Caffeine, paraxanthine, sulfamethazine, and clindamycin were detected with 100 percent frequency in the Yangtze River. In the river, the highest average concentration was observed for erythromycin (296ngL(-1)), followed by caffeine (142ngL(-1)) and paraxanthine (41ngL(-1)). In the four lakes, total PPCP concentrations were much higher in the Chao (1547ngL(-1)) and Tai (1087ngL(-1)) lakes compared to the Poyang (108ngL(-1)) and Dongting (137ngL(-1)) lakes. Lincomycin and clindamycin were most abundant in the lakes, especially in the Tai Lake. Environmental risk assessment for the worst case scenario was assessed using calculated risk quotients, and indicates a high environmental risk of erythromycin and clarithromycin in the Yangtze River, clarithromycin in the Chao Lake, and clindamycin in the Tai Lake.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 05/2014; 106C:19-26. · 2.20 Impact Factor