The leaky pipeline: factors associated with early decline in interest in premedical studies among underrepresented minority undergraduate students.
ABSTRACT To determine the causes among underrepresented racial and ethnic minority groups (URM) of a decline in interest during the undergraduate years in pursuing a career in medicine.
From fall 2002 through 2007, the authors conducted a longitudinal study of 362 incoming Stanford freshmen (23% URM) who indicated on a freshman survey that they hoped to become physicians. Using a 10-point scale of interest, the authors measured the change in students' levels of interest in continuing premedical studies between the beginning of freshman year and the end of sophomore year. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 68 participants, approximately half of whom had experienced decreases in interest in continuing as premeds, and half of whom who had experienced increases in interest.
URM students showed a larger decline in interest than did non-URM students; women showed a larger decline than did men, independent of race or ethnicity. The authors found no association between scholastic ability as measured by SAT scores and changes in level of interest. The principal reason given by students for their loss of interest in continuing as premeds was a negative experience in one or more chemistry courses. Students also identified problems in the university's undergraduate advising system as a contributor.
Largely because of negative experiences with chemistry classes, URM students and women show a disproportionate decline in interest in continuing in premedical studies, with the result that fewer apply to medical school.
SourceAvailable from: heri.ucla.edu
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ABSTRACT: Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation to cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized the different kinds of problems encountered in general organic chemistry, and correlated performance in each problem type with overall class performance. Fairly reproducible results are found for ten consecutive semesters over five academic years. Problem types that require higher-level cognitive skills tend to correlate better with overall class performance than those that rely more heavily on memorization. Performance on some problem types was found to predict up to ~90% of the variances of overall class performance. Correlations across problem types with external student characteristics, such as general chemistry grade, are interpreted as highlighting the important contributions of other factors in addition to cognitive ability to success in organic chemistry.11/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1039/C4RP00208C
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ABSTRACT: Objective. To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Design. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Assessment. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. Conclusion. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting.American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2015; 79(1):11. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79111 · 1.19 Impact Factor