Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids for
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
in Children and Adolescents
Göteborg University, Sweden
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess omega 3/6 fatty acids (eye q) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD). Method: The study included a randomized, 3-month, omega 3/6 placebo-controlled, one-way crossover trial with
75 children and adolescents (8–18 years), followed by 3 months with omega 3/6 for all. Investigator-rated ADHD Rating
Scale–IV and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale were outcome measures. Results: A majority did not respond to
omega 3/6 treatment. However, a subgroup of 26% responded with more than 25% reduction of ADHD symptoms and a
drop of CGI scores to the near-normal range. After 6 months, 47% of all showed such improvement. Responders tended to
have ADHD inattentive subtype and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders. Conclusion:A subgroup of children and ado-
lescents with ADHD, characterized by inattention and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, treated with omega 3/6
fatty acids for 6 months responded with meaningful reduction of ADHD symptoms. (J. of Att. Dis. 2008; XX(X) xx-xx)
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; omega 3/6 fatty acids; developmental coordination disorder; reading
the neuronal cell membranes of the brain, and it has been
hypothesized that they may have a role in facilitating the
transmission of signals between neurons (Sinn &
Wilson, 2006). During the past two decades, several
studies have been conducted due to the growing interest in
the role of nutrition in behavior and learning problems in
children, especially regarding the omega-3 and omega-6
fatty acids. A link between attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) symptoms, learning difficulties, and
omega 3/6 fatty acid deficiency has been suggested
(Stevens et al., 1995), and trials with supplementation of
a combination of two omega-3 acids, eicosapentaenoic
acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in children
hospholipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids,
such as omega-3 and omega-6, are integral parts of
with reading writing disorder (RWD), dyspraxia (i.e.,
motor coordination difficulties or developmental coordi-
nation disorder [DCD]), and ADHD-related symptoms
have reported significant symptom reductions (Richardson
& Montgomery, 2005; Richardson & Puri, 2002; Stevens
et al., 2003). Trials with DHA only, however, have been
less promising (Hirayama, Hamazaki, & Terasawa, 2004;
Journal of Attention Disorders
Volume XX Number X
Month XXXX xx-xx
© 2008 Sage Publications
Authors’Note: The authors acknowledge B. Areskoug, B. Börjesson,
K. Hjalmarsson, M. Landgren, I. Matouskova, I. Olsson, and J. E.
Månsson for their contributions, and the study was funded by
Equazen UK Ltd. Address correspondence to Mats Johnson, MD,
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of
Neuroscience and Physiology, Göteborg University, Kungsgatan 12,
411 18 Göteborg, Sweden; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Journal of Attention Disorders OnlineFirst, published on April 30, 2008 as doi:10.1177/1087054708316261
Copyright 2008 by SAGE Publications.
Voight et al., 2001), suggesting that the presence of the
EPA component might be important.
Two recently published placebo-controlled trials using
the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid supplement Equazen
eye q (hereafter termed omega 3/6) have been performed
in Oxford-Durham, United Kingdom, and in Adelaide,
South Australia. In the Oxford-Durham Study, 117
schoolchildren with DCD, aged 5 to 12 years, received
omega 3/6 or placebo, six capsules daily for 3 months,
followed by 3 months of omega 3/6 at the same dose for
all. Some degree of attention problems and hyperactivity
was common in this group, but the children had no formal
ADHD diagnosis. Significant reductions in ADHD symp-
toms were reported for the omega 3/6group, measured on
subscales of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale–Long
Version (Richardson & Montgomery, 2005). The
Australian study included 132 children, aged 7 to 12 years,
who scored +2 SD or more above population norms on
the Conners’ ADHD index, a subscale of the Conners’
Parent Rating Scale–Long Version (Sinn & Bryan, 2007).
Thus, these children had ADHD index scores suggestive
of ADHD, but the children were not formally clinically
diagnosed for the study. They were randomized to receive
15 weeks’ supplementation with omega 3/6 (either
together with a micronutrient supplement containing vit-
amins C, B3, and B6, zinc, magnesium, etc., or omega 3/6
alone) or placebo, followed by 15 weeks with omega 3/6
for all. Significant reductions in ADHD symptoms were
found on the Conners’Parent Rating Scale but not on the
corresponding teacher scale, and there was no significant
difference with or without micronutrients.
The present study was launched with a view to repli-
cating findings of the previous studies and to focus
specifically on the treatment effects of omega 3/6 in
young people diagnosed with ADHD. As defined in the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
(4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association [APA],
2000), ADHD has three subtypes (mainly inattentive,
mainly hyperactive/impulsive, and combined), and to
qualify for diagnosis, symptoms must cause significant
functional impairment. The majority of children with
ADHD also have some associated problems that can be
diagnosed under the DSM-IV (Kadesjö & Gillberg, 2001;
Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD
Cooperative Group, 1999). Difficulties with motor coor-
dination (corresponding to DCD) and perception are
common, and these symptom combinations are encom-
passed in the term DAMP (deficits in attention, motor
control, and perception, which, in turn, correspond to
ADHD with DCD). Many of these children have consid-
erable problems with learning and reading or writing, and
the most frequent other comorbidities are oppositional
defiant disorder (ODD), varying degrees of symptoms
within the autism spectrum, anxiety, depression, tics, and
Tourette syndrome. Therefore, a special effort was made
in the present study to make a detailed assessment of
both the ADHD subtype and the occurring comorbidities
so as to allow analysis of any difference in treatment out-
come in diagnostic subgroups.
The primary objective was to assess whether supple-
mentation with omega 3/6 fatty acids was effective in
reducing ADHD core symptoms in a clinical sample of
children and adolescents with ADHD and to search for
any differences in effect between well-defined subgroups
in the sample based on detailed diagnosis of coexisting
This was a randomized placebo-controlled comprising
two 3-month periods (Study Periods 1 and 2). The first 3-
month period was double-blind. The manufacturer of
omega 3/6 provided consecutively numbered identical
bottles of which 50% contained active treatment and 50%
placebo in random order according to a code list that was
not accessible to the investigators. The code was broken
by a third party when all patients had completed the study
after 6 months. At the start of Study Period 1, the patients
were randomized to active treatment with omega 3/6 in a
dose of three capsules twice daily, corresponding to a daily
dose of 558 mg EPA, 174 mg DHA (both are omega-3
fatty acids), 60 mg gamma linoleic acid (an omega 6
fatty acid), and 10.8 mg Vitamin E, or to placebo (identi-
cal capsules containing olive oil). In Study Period 2, all
patients were given (open) active treatment in the same
dosage. This one-way crossover design (in preference to
a two-way crossover) and length of treatment periods
followed the model of the Oxford-Durham study
(Richardson & Montgomery, 2005) and was chosen due to
the assumed slow turnover of the fatty acids in neuronal
membranes (Bourre et al., 1993). The dosage is the same
as in the Oxford-Durham and Adelaide studies because
positive effects were reached without significant adverse
events in these studies. Higher doses were considered
unlikely to give more benefit based on the results of an
earlier dose–response trial of treatment with EPA for
depression in adults, in which the group which received 1
g/day showed a significantly better outcome than the
groups treated with 2 or 4 g/day (A. Kelliher, personal
communication, January 8, 2008; Peet & Horrobin, 2002).
2Journal of Attention Disorders
A total of 75 patients (64 boys and 11 girls), 35 with
ADHD combined subtype and 40 with ADHD mainly
inattentive subtype (AD), were included in the present
study (Table 1), which was conducted at three sites in
southwest Sweden: the Child Neuropsychiatry Clinic in
Göteborg, the General Child Psychiatry Clinic in Göteborg,
and the Centre for Child Neurology in Mariestad. The
study participants were recruited from among patients
assessed and diagnosed at these clinics. Patients aged
8 to 18 years who met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of
ADHD of any subtype, scoring at least 1.5 SD above the
age norm for their diagnostic subtype using norms for
the ADHD Rating Scale–IV–Parent Version (ADHD-
RS-IV; DuPaul, Power, Anastopoulos, & Reid, 1998),
were included in the study. The presence of any associ-
ated condition (comorbidity) was assessed by clinical
interview according to DSM-IV criteria. Reading and
writing ability was determined by standardized tests and
RWD diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria for reading
disorder and/or disorder of written expression (APA,
2000). The term learning difficulties (LD) used in this
article corresponds to the DSM-IV diagnosis of borderline
intellectual functioning. Exclusion criteria for entry into
the study were autism (however, autistic symptoms [AS]
diagnosed in cases meeting three or more but not full
symptom criteria for a diagnosis of autistic disorder,
Asperger syndrome, or any of the other autism spectrum
disorders was not an exclusion criterion), psychosis,
bipolar disorder, mental retardation, uncontrolled seizure
disorder, hyper- or hypothyroidism, significant other
medical conditions, weight below 20 kg, alcohol or drug
abuse, or the use of any psychoactive drugs or omega 3
preparations in the past 3 months.
Of the 89 patients who were originally assessed with
a view to enrollment in the trial, 7 could not be enrolled
because they were shown to meet exclusion criteria: mild
mental retardation (n = 4), autism (n = 1), sertraline treat-
ment (n = 1), or meeting too few ADHD criteria (n = 1).
Another 7 patients were excluded from the present study
due to lack of ADHD-RS-IV and Clinical Global
Impression (CGI) severity scale (Guy, 1976) data (see
below) at the follow-up visits, leaving a total of 75
patients for analyses in this study. A large majority (78%,
59/75) of the patients had at least one comorbid diagnosis
(Table 1). Only 1 of the patients had previously been
treated with medication for ADHD (methylphenidate).
Johnson et al. / Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids for ADHD 3
Demographics of Sample
Patient CharacteristicsActive (n = 37) Placebo (n = 38) Total (N = 75)
Age, years, M (SD)
Age groups, n (%)
Gender, n (%)
Attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder subtype, n (%)
Associated conditions, n (%)
Reading writing disorder
Oppositional defiant disorder
Developmental coordination disorder
Autism-like condition or Asperger
Depression or anxiety
Obsessive compulsive disorder
11.8 (2.14)12.2 (2.19)12 (2.16)
Informed Consent and Ethics
Written informed consent to participate was given by
both the patient and the parent. The study was approved
by the local ethical review board.
Clinical assessments were made at three visits at the
sites: at baseline, 3 months (before switching to open
treatment with omega 3/6), and 6 months.
Visit 1. At Visit 1, informed consent was signed, inclu-
sion and exclusion criteria were assessed, and the inves-
tigators made a medical evaluation, including medical and
psychiatric history, assessment of diagnosis and comor-
bidity through parent interview according to DSM-IV cri-
teria and of ADHD symptom severity by the
ADHD-RS-IV and the CGI severity scale.
A number of other examinations and instruments were
used, the results of some of which will be reported sepa-
rately. These included a physical examination including
height and weight, pulse and blood pressure, a neuromo-
tor examination, using the medical motor examination
(Kadesjö & Gillberg, 1999), and an assessment of the
general level of functioning with the Global Assessment
of Functioning Scale. The questionnaires Swanson,
Nolan, and Pelham (SNAP)-IV (Swanson, 1992), Five
To Fifteen (FTF) Parent Scale (Kadesjö et al., 2004), and
Brown’s Attention Deficit Disorder Scale for Children
and Adolescents (Brown, 1996) were completed by the
parents; Brown’s Self Report (Brown, 2001) was com-
pleted by the children; and the FTF Teacher Scale,
Brown’s Teacher Scale (Brown, 1996), and SNAP-IV
were sent to the teachers for completion. Several neu-
ropsychological tests were performed by a psychologist
(S.Ö.) and reading–writing tests by a special education
teacher (G.F.). At Visits 1–3, a blood sample was taken
from all patients who agreed to this for analysis of the
plasma fatty acid profile.
Visit 2. Visit 2 included the same examinations and
instruments as Visit 1, with the exception of the FTF
Parent and Teacher scales.
Visit 3. Visit 3 included all the same measures as Visit 1.
At Visits 2 and 3, the parents and children were also
interviewed about current medical symptoms and any
adverse events or side effects (open-ended questions).
Compliance was assessed by telephone parent reports,
biweekly in Study Period 1 and monthly in Study Period
2. Compliance was defined as taking the prescribed
dosage on more than 70% of the days in the interval.
Outcome measures. The primary outcome measures
of ADHD symptoms were the investigator-rated ADHD-
RS-IV–Parent Version and the CGI severity scale. The
ADHD-RS scale was originally validated as a parent- or
teacher-rated scale, and U.S. norms for age and gender
groups of children were developed (DuPaul et al., 1998).
It was later validated as a clinician-rated parent interview
to allow evaluation of symptom severity in multiple set-
tings related to the clinicians’total experience of patients
with ADHD, thus aiming for increased consistency
(Faries, Yalcin, Harder, & Heiligenstein, 2001), and has
been used as a clinician-rated parent interview in several
clinical trials with ADHD medications (Kratochvil et al.,
2002; Michelson et al., 2001; Michelson et al., 2004).
The raters of the ADHD-RS and CGI scales in the pre-
sent study were pediatricians or child psychiatrists who
had received training in using the scales.
The ADHD-RS-IV scores each of the 18 ADHD
symptoms contained in the DSM-IV diagnosis on a 0–3
point scale, giving a maximum of 54 points. For clini-
cally meaningful response, we used a definition that has
been used in clinical trials with ADHD medications (e.g.,
Michelson et al., 2004), that is, a reduction of at least
25% of the symptom scores on the ADHD-RS scale.
The overall clinical impression of symptom severity
and functional impairment was measured with the CGI
severity scale, which is a clinician rating of the patient’s
symptom severity related to the clinician’s total experi-
ence with ADHD patients, scored from 1 (normal, not
ill) to 7 (among the most extremely ill patients).
Treatment differences in mean changes of symptom
scores from baseline to endpoint were assessed using the
Wilcoxon test. All randomized patients with at least one
postbaseline measurement were included in the analysis.
Baseline was defined as the last measurement obtained at
or before randomization, and endpoint was defined as the
last measurement obtained after the randomization.
Differences in responder rates were assessed using the
Attrition, Compliance, and Side Effects
A total of 64 patients (78% of all included, 54 boys
and 10 girls) completed Study Period 1, and 59 (72% of
all, 49 boys and 10 girls) completed both study periods.
A total of 16 patients (21%, 16/75) withdrew from the
trial: 11 (3 active, 8 placebo) during Study Period 1 (7 were
4 Journal of Attention Disorders
unmotivated to continue or had problems swallowing the
capsules [1 active, 6 placebo], 3 had side effects in the
form of dyspepsia, vomiting, or diarrhea [2 active, 1
placebo]), and the blinded code had to be broken for 1
patient (placebo) due to markedly increased irritability.
Five (5%, 5/75) withdrew during Study Period 2 (4 due
to poor motivation and 1 due to diarrhea).
Compliance was generally high, with a mean of 93.4%
(range = 74%–100%) for Study Period 1 and 93.3% for
Study Period 2 (range =75%–100%). All patients who com-
pleted a study period were also compliant for that period.
Only those who withdrew from the study were noncom-
pliant, and their results for the period in which they dis-
continued are not considered in the present analysis.
In addition to the 3 patients on active treatment who
discontinued the study because of dyspepsia or diarrhea,
6 patients reported mild stomach discomfort or dyspep-
sia on active treatment. No other side effects were noted
during the trial.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder Rating Scale–IV Scores
At baseline, there were no significant differences
between mean total ADHD-RS scores (active = 33.5, SD
= 7.7; placebo = 32.4, SD = 8.0), scores for inattention
(active = 19.8, SD = 3.2; placebo = 19.5, SD = 3.1), or for
hyperactivity/impulsivity (active = 14.2, SD = 7.3;
placebo = 12.5, SD = 6.9). Overall, during Study Period
1, there was a nonsignificant trend for greater reduction in
ADHD-RS scores in the active group versus the placebo
group, for total ADHD scores as well as for inattentive
and hyperactive/impulsive subscores (Table 2). A similar
trend was observed in Study Period 2 for the group which
received active treatment in both study periods compared
with those who received placebo in Study Period 1.
Clinical Global Impression Results
For the whole group, the mean CGI score was 4.67
(range = 4–6, SD = 0.58) at baseline, 4.06 (range = 2–6,
SD = 1.13) at Visit 2, and 3.38 (range = 1–6, SD = 1.39)
at Visit 3. The improvement in the active group at Visit 2
was significantly greater than in the placebo group
(Table 2). For the Study Period 1 responders (see below)
on active treatment, the CGI scores were reduced from
moderate or marked severity (M = 4.6, SD = 0.7, n = 11)
at baseline to the near-normal range, that is, 2–3 (M =
2.6, SD = 0.52, n = 8), or from severe (6) to moderate (4)
severity (n = 1). For the responders at the end of Study
Period 2 compared with study start, the CGI scores had
dropped to a similar range, that is, 1–3 (M = 2.4, SD =
0.7, n = 28).
At the end of Study Period 1, 26% (9/34, all boys) in
the active group and 7% (2/30, 1 boy, 1 girl) in the
placebo group were clinically meaningful responders,
with more than 25% improvement in ADHD symptoms
as measured on the ADHD-RS scale (p = .04; Table 3).
Four of the responders in the active group (12%, 4/34)
had more than 50% reduction of ADHD symptoms com-
pared with none in the placebo group. At the end of
Study Period 2, 47% (28/59) were responders compared
with study start, and among these were 7 patients (12%)
who had more than 50% symptom reduction. There
appeared to be a difference between boys and girls,
because all responders in the active group in Study
Period 1 were boys, whereas the single responder among
the girls was in the placebo group. However, the small
sample of girls (10 girls completed Study Period 1)
makes conclusions tentative, and at the end of Study
Johnson et al. / Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids for ADHD5
Changes in ADHD-RS and CGI Scores for the Active or Placebo Groups After 3 Months and 6 Months
Change in ADHD-RS and CGI ScoresActive (M)
Study Period 1
Study Period 2
Note: ADHD-RS = Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale; CGI = Clinical Global Impression.
Period 2, the responder frequency was similar among
boys and girls, 47% (23/49) versus 50% (5/10).
Analysis according to diagnostic subgroups revealed
that responders were significantly more frequent in the
AD group (p = .03) than in the ADHD combined group
(ns; Table 3). Responders tended to be more frequent
among patients with a developmental disorder, that is,
RWD (p = .05), DCD, LD, or AS (ns). In patients with
other comorbidities (ODD, conduct disorder [CD],
depression, anxiety, etc.) there were no responders.
Overall, this is an essentially negative study. The dou-
ble-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial demon-
strated that for the whole group of children and
adolescents with ADHD, omega 3/6 supplementation for
3 months was not statistically superior to placebo.
However, a closer look at variations in response
within the group showed that there was a subgroup (26%
of all in the active group, 7% in the placebo group, p = .04)
who responded with a clinically meaningful improve-
ment in ADHD core symptoms, that is, a reduction of at
least 25% on the ADHD Rating Scale–IV and a reduc-
tion of CGI scores to the near-normal range. Among
these was a tendency for a small group (12% in the active
group, none in the placebo group, ns) who experienced a
symptom reduction of more than 50%. The results in the
responder group were distinctly different from those of
the nonresponders, who showed little or no change in
symptom scores throughout the study. Another possible
indication suggestive of a positive effect from active
treatment was that discontinuation during the first 3
months tended to be slightly more common in the
placebo group (3 active, 8 placebo, ns).
Comparison of treatment effect size in the present trial
with that of the Oxford-Durham and Adelaide studies is
limited by differences in the scales used as outcome
measures. It is also possible that the patient samples
were rather different. Our clinical patients were often
severely affected, all had clinical AD or ADHD, and the
majority had complex comorbidities.
A clinically meaningful response tended to be more
frequent in the subgroup of children with associated neu-
rodevelopmental comorbidity, that is, RWD, DCD, LD,
or AS, and was lacking altogether in children with ODD,
6 Journal of Attention Disorders
Patient Characteristics and Response Rates in Subgroups
Responders (%) During
0–3 Months of Study
(No. of Responders
Months of Study
(No. of Responders
at Endpoint Patient Characteristics
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtype
Reading writing disorder
Autistic traits or ASP or ALC
Any RWD, DCD, LD or autistic symptoms
Depression or anxiety
75 26 (9/34)7 (2/30).04 47 (28/59)
Note: DCD = developmental coordination disorder; LD = learning difficulties; ASP = asperger; ALC = autism-like condition; RWD = reading
writing disorder; ODD = oppositional defiant disorder.
depression, or anxiety diagnoses. After 6 months
(including at least 3 months of active treatment), 47% of
all were responders. A small group (12% of the boys, all
in the Study Period 1 active group) experienced more
than 50% reduction in ADHD symptoms, making a sub-
stantial clinical difference in the daily functioning for
these individuals. After 3 months, this was the case for 4
patients in the active group (3 AD + RWD, 1 AD). After
6 months, 7 patients (3 AD + RWD, 2 AD, 2 ADHD +
DCD + RWD) had such marked improvement. This
might tentatively be taken to mean that omega 3/6 treat-
ment may be specifically effective for children with the
phenotype of deficits in attention, motor control, and
perception (DAMP), a finding that is in line with the
results of the two previous studies in the field. The
results indicate that it may be helpful to select patients
with this phenotype and reading or writing difficulties
for future research trials and treatment with omega 3/6
Statistical power was limited by small sample size, par-
ticularly when it came to analysis of effects in clinical sub-
groups. It is possible that observed trends in treatment
effects would reach significance with a larger sample.
Pill counts were not performed, which means that
compliance might have been overestimated.
Most medication trials in ADHD have included
mainly cases with the combined subtype. Our study is
atypical in this respect given that about half of all partic-
ipants had the mainly inattentive subtype of ADHD.
Furthermore, there was a trend in the study that the
children with this subtype might be more likely to
respond to omega 3/6. Thus, our findings cannot be gen-
eralized to apply to children with the combined subtype
The relatively infrequent clinic face-to-face follow-up
visits in our protocol could be seen as a limitation affect-
ing the recognition of early efficacy, but the slow turnover
of omega 3/6 suggests that short-term effects should not
be expected. Also, more frequent visits could have con-
tributed toward increasing the risk of placebo effects.
This is the first double-blind randomized controlled
trial of omega 3/6 for clinically diagnosed ADHD. The
overall outcome was negative. More than half of all
children with clinically impairing ADHD did not
respond to 6 months of treatment with omega 3/6 fatty
acids. However, about 1 in 8 patients in the study group
showed considerable improvements (reduction of more
than 50% of ADHD symptoms), and almost half the
group responded to some degree after extension of the
double-blind part of the study to include another 3
months of open treatment. Boys, and particularly those
with ADHD inattentive subtype, DCD, RWD, and AS
(often associated with the phenotype of the so-called
DAMP syndrome), tended to be more likely to respond
to the treatment. Side effects were few and rarely of clin-
ical significance. However, a small subgroup reacted
with dyspepsia severe enough to warrant termination of
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Neuropsychiatry Clinic in Göteborg. He is involved in
research on interventions for ADHD, ODD, and neurodevelop-
mental disorders in children and adolescents.
MD, is a clinician at the Child
Sven Östlund, BA, is a clinical psychologist at the Child
Neuropsychiatry Clinic in Göteborg. He is involved in
research on interventions for ADHD, ODD, and neurodevelop-
mental disorders in children and adolescents.
Gunnar Fransson, BA, is a special education teacher at the
Child Neuropsychiatry Clinic in Göteborg. He is involved in
research on interventions for ADHD, ODD, and neurodevelop-
mental disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults.
Björn Kadesjö, PhD, is the head of the Child Neuropsychiatry
Clinic in Göteborg. He is involved in research on interventions
and management of ADHD, ODD, and neurodevelopmental
disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults.
Christopher Gillberg, PhD, is a professor of child and ado-
lescent psychiatry at Göteborg University. He is also with
Strathclyde University, Glasgow, and the Institute of Child
Health, London, UK.
8 Journal of Attention Disorders