Interactions of murine APOBEC3 and human APOBEC3G with murine leukemia viruses.
ABSTRACT APOBEC3 proteins are cytidine deaminases which help defend cells against retroviral infections. One antiviral mechanism involves deaminating dC residues in minus-strand DNA during reverse transcription, resulting in G-to-A mutations in the coding strand. We investigated the effects of mouse APOBEC3 (mA3) and human APOBEC3G (hA3G) upon Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV). We find that mA3 inactivates MLV but is significantly less effective against MLV than is hA3G. In contrast, mA3 is as potent against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, lacking the protective Vif protein) as is hA3G. The two APOBEC3 proteins are packaged to similar extents in MLV particles. Dose-response profiles imply that a single APOBEC3 molecule (or oligomer) is sufficient to inactivate an MLV particle. The inactivation of MLV by mA3 and hA3G is accompanied by relatively small reductions in the amount of viral DNA in infected cells. Although hA3G induces significant levels of G-to-A mutations in both MLV and HIV DNAs, and mA3 induces these mutations in HIV DNA, no such mutations were detected in DNA synthesized by MLV inactivated by mA3. Thus, MLV has apparently evolved to partially resist the antiviral effects of mA3 and to totally resist the ability of mA3 to induce G-to-A mutation in viral DNA. Unlike the resistance of HIV-1 and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 to hA3G, the resistance of MLV to mA3 is not mediated by the exclusion of APOBEC from the virus particle. The nature of its resistance and the mechanism of inactivation of MLV by mA3 are completely unknown.
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ABSTRACT: We have analyzed the dimeric RNA present in Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) particles. We found that the RNA in newly released virions is in a conformation different from that in mature virions, since it has a different electrophoretic mobility in nondenaturing agarose gels and dissociates into monomers at a lower temperature. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the RNA initially packaged into nascent virions is already dimeric but that the dimer undergoes a maturation process after the virus is released from the cell. In further experiments, we tested the possibility that this maturation event is linked to the maturation cleavage of the virion proteins, which is catalyzed by the viral protease (PR). We found that the dimeric RNA isolated from PR- mutant virions resembles that from immature virions: it has a lower electrophoretic mobility and a lower sedimentation rate, and it also dissociates at a lower temperature than does RNA from mature wild-type virions. When Kirsten sarcoma virus is rescued by a PR- mutant or by a somewhat leaky cysteine array mutant of MoMuLV, its RNA also exhibits a electrophoretic mobility lower than that in the wild-type pseudotype. These results suggest that the maturation of dimeric RNA in released virus particles requires the cleavage of the Gag precursor and the presence of an intact cysteine array in the released nucleocapsid protein.Journal of Virology 10/1993; 67(9):5443-9. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: Placement of tRNA primer on the primer-binding site requires pol gene expression in avian but not murine retroviruses.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In an early step in the retroviral infectious process, reverse transcriptase copies the genomic RNA of the virus into complementary minus-strand DNA. The primer for this synthetic event is a molecule of cellular tRNA, which is annealed by its 3' 18 nucleotides to a region of the genomic RNA termed the primer-binding site (PBS); the sequence of the PBS and hence the identity of the tRNA depend upon the retrovirus species. In addition to the primer tRNA, retrovirus particles contain a substantial number of other tRNA molecules. The latter tRNA population is enriched for the tRNA species which serves as primer for the virus. While there is considerable evidence that the enrichment for the primer species can be attributed to the pol gene product, nothing is known regarding mechanisms of annealing the primer to the PBS. We have analyzed pol- mutants of avian leukosis virus (ALV) and murine leukemia virus (MuLV) for the presence of primer at the PBS in virion genomic RNA. Remarkably, the results were different for the two viruses: the PBS was substantially occupied by primer in MuLV but not in ALV. Previous data indicates that the Pol-dependent enrichment of the primer within the virion is much greater in ALV than in MuLV. We therefore propose that the absence of primer at the PBS in pol- ALV is due to the deficiency of the primer species within the particle. The results suggest that, at least in MuLV, the tRNA is unwound by either the Gag protein or a cellular protein for annealing to the PBS. Further, the C-terminal 17 amino acids of Gag are unnecessary for this function in MuLV.Journal of Virology 10/1997; 71(9):6940-6. · 5.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cytidine (C) to uridine (U) editing of apolipoprotein (apo) B mRNA is mediated by tissue-specific, RNA-binding cytidine deaminase APOBEC1. APOBEC1 is structurally homologous to Escherichia coli cytidine deaminase (ECCDA), but has evolved specific features required for RNA substrate binding and editing. A signature sequence for APOBEC1 has been used to identify other members of this family. One of these genes, designated APOBEC2, is found on chromosome 6. Another gene corresponds to the activation-induced deaminase (AID) gene, which is located adjacent to APOBEC1 on chromosome 12. Seven additional genes, or pseudogenes (designated APOBEC3A to 3G), are arrayed in tandem on chromosome 22. Not present in rodents, this locus is apparently an anthropoid-specific expansion of the APOBEC family. The conclusion that these new genes encode orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes of the APOBEC family comes from similarity in amino acid sequence with APOBEC1, conserved intron/exon organization, tissue-specific expression, homodimerization, and zinc and RNA binding similar to APOBEC1. Tissue-specific expression of these genes in a variety of cell lines, along with other evidence, suggests a role for these enzymes in growth or cell cycle control.Genomics 04/2002; 79(3):285-96. · 3.02 Impact Factor