Clinical anatomy of the superior orbital fissure and the orbital apex.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Specialist Hospital in Radom, Poland.
Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.6). 05/2008; 36(6):346-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcms.2008.02.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There are discrepancies between authors as far as topography of superior ophthalmic vein in the orbital apex is concerned.
The aim was to determine the location of the structures within the posterior part of the orbit and in the superior orbital fissure.
One hundred preparations of orbits were derived from the corpses sectioned in Forensic Medicine Department, University Medical School in Warsaw, Poland.
Anatomical preparation was performed with use of standard set of microsurgical equipment and operating microscope.
Nine various morphological types of the superior orbital fissure were distinguished. Among those were two main categories: type "a" characterised by a clear narrowing within the fissure and type "b" which lacked such narrowing. The type "a" and "b" fissures were also different in length whereby type "b" fissure was significantly shorter. A diversity of positioning of the soft structures within those types was successfully noted. In type "a" the superior ophthalmic vein was located typically, however in type "b" fissures it was significantly more often the lowest structure in the posterior part of the orbital apex (except for muscles and orbital fat). A short case report of patient with superior orbital syndrome was added.
Position of soft tissue structures in superior orbital fissure depended on its morphological type.

  • Atlas of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics 09/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture) of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features-thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall). The observation was made from 1 · 10(-3) to 1 · 10(-2) second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found.
    Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2014; 2014:231436. · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Surgical management of intraconal pathology represents the next frontier in endoscopic endonasal surgery. Despite this, the medial intraconal space remains a relatively unexplored region, secondary to its variable and technically demanding anatomy. The purpose of this study is to define the neurovascular structures in this region and introduce a compartmentalized approach to enhance surgical planning.Methods This study was an institutional review board (IRB)-exempt endoscopic anatomic study in 10 cadaveric orbits. After dissection of the medial intraconal space, the pattern and trajectory of the oculomotor nerve and ophthalmic arterial arborizations were analyzed. The position of all vessels as well as the length of the oculomotor trunk and branches relative to the sphenoid face were calculated.ResultsA mean of 1.5 arterial branches were identified (n = 15; range, 1-4) at a mean of 8.8 mm from the sphenoid face (range, 4-15 mm). The majority of the arteries (n = 7) inserted adjacent to the midline of medial rectus. The oculomotor nerve inserted at the level of the sphenoid face and arborized with a large proximal trunk 5.5 ± 1.1 mm in length and multiple branches extending 13.2 ± 2.7 mm from the sphenoid face. The most anterior nerve and vascular pedicle were identified at 17.0 and 15.0 mm from the sphenoid face, respectively.Conclusion The neurovascular supply to the medial rectus muscle describes a varied but predictable pattern. This data allows the compartmentalization of the medial intraconal space into 3 zones relative to the neurovascular supply. These zones inform the complexity of the dissection and provide a guideline for safe medial rectus retraction relative to the fixed landmark of the sphenoid face.
    International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology 03/2014; · 1.00 Impact Factor