Vascular factors and depression
ABSTRACT This paper examines possible mechanisms that may explain the bi-directional relationship between vascular disease and depression.
A literature review was carried out using Medline from 1996 to 2007, using relevant key words including vascular depression, and supplemented by key references to earlier work.
Several mechanisms were considered including: autonomic dysfunction, platelet activation, hypothalamic pituitary axis activation, endothelial dysfunction, cytokines, omega 3 fatty acids, genetics, homocysteine and effects of treatment.
The relationship between vascular disease and depression cannot solely be explained by current established risk factors or the effects of treatment for depression. Other mechanisms must apply, and there is some evidence for common genetic factors. Promising future lines of investigation include homocysteine, cytokines and endothelial dysfunction. More longitudinal studies combined with measurements of these biomarkers are needed.
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ABSTRACT: Studies have shown the association of mood disorders and endothelial dysfunction, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease; however, mediatory mechanisms are not entirely clarified in this regard. We investigated the relationship between depression/anxiety symptoms with systemic inflammation and endothelial function. This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011 on employees of an oil company located in the Isfahan city (central Iran). Participants were selected with clustered random sampling. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Systemic inflammatory status was evaluated by measuring sensitive C-reactive protein (high sensitive-CRP). To evaluate the endothelial function flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured. During the study period, 254 participants (mean age = 51.4 ± 6.1 years) were evaluated. No significant relationship was found between high sensitive-CRP or FMD and any of the variables of anxiety or depression. In multivariate analysis, by controlling the possible confounding factors, no association was found between anxiety score, depression, or the overall score of HADS with high sensitive-CRP or FMD. After the separate analysis of patients with and without diabetes, depression score was correlated inversely with FMD among patients with diabetes (r = 0.525, P = 0.021). According to the results, in the studied population, there was no relationship between anxiety/depression with systemic inflammation or endothelial dysfunction, while in individuals with diabetes, depression was associated with endothelial dysfunction. In this regard more cohort studies are recommended.Journal of research in medical sciences 11/2013; 18(11):979-83. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of late-life depression with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in a multiethnic community cohort. DESIGN AND SETTING A cohort study was conducted in Northern Manhattan, New York, New York. PARTICIPANTS A total of 2160 community-dwelling Medicare recipients aged 65 years or older were included in the study. METHODS Depression was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and defined by a CES-D score of 4 or more. We used logistic regression for cross-sectional association analyses and proportional hazards regression for longitudinal analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Mild cognitive impairment dementia, and progression from MCI to dementia were the main outcome measures. We also used subcategories of MCI (amnestic and nonamnestic), and dementia (probable Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia, including possible Alzheimer disease with stroke). RESULTS Baseline depression was associated with prevalent MCI (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9) and dementia (2.2; 1.6-3.1). Baseline depression was associated with an increased risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio [HR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3) but not with incident MCI (0.9; 0.7-1.2). Persons with MCI and coexisting depression at baseline had a higher risk of progression to dementia (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4), especially vascular dementia (4.3; 1.1-17.0), but not Alzheimer disease (1.9; 1.0-3.6). CONCLUSION The association of depression with prevalent MCI and with progression from MCI to dementia, but not with incident MCI, suggests that depression accompanies cognitive impairment but does not precede it.Archives of neurology 12/2012; 70(3):1-7. DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.603 · 7.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Organische Ursachen akuter psychiatrischer Syndrome stellen die wichtigste Differenzialdiagnose bei psychiatrischen Akutaufnahmen, im Konsiliardienst und ambulanten Notdienst dar. Gerade mit der wachsenden Gruppe älterer Patienten treten Delirien, oft multifaktoriell ausgelöst, sehr häufig auf. Trotz ihrer ungünstigen Prognose bleiben sie allerdings zu oft unerkannt und unbehandelt. Medikamentöse, akutneurologische, infektiöse, metabolische und andere somatische Ursachen müssen differenzialdiagnostisch fundiert durch Anamnese, körperlichen Befund, Labor und Bildgebung ausgeschlossen werden. Erstmanifestationen wie auch psychiatrische Begleitsymptome stellen oft eine differenzialdiagnostische Herausforderung dar, auch in der teilweise allerdings nicht sicher möglichen Abgrenzung von reaktiven psychischen Störungen.Bestätigt sich eine organische Ursache, ist die Therapie primär ursachenorientiert und erst in einem zweiten Schritt symptomatisch mit antipsychotischer, antidepressiver oder sedierender Medikation. Einer iatrogenen Verursachung von Delirien sowie deren Prävention gilt ein besonderes Augenmerk, um die medizinische Qualität gerade für Ältere zu verbessern.Der Nervenarzt 05/2010; 81(5). DOI:10.1007/s00115-010-3013-9 · 0.86 Impact Factor