Safety and immunogenicity study of NY-ESO-1b peptide and montanide ISA-51 vaccination of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer in high-risk first remission
ABSTRACT The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is expressed by >40% of advanced epithelial ovarian cancers and is a promising immunotherapeutic target. In this study, we describe the effects of vaccination with the HLA-A*0201-restricted NY-ESO-1b peptide on patients with epithelial ovarian cancer in high-risk first remission.
After primary surgery and chemotherapy, high-risk epithelial ovarian cancer patients in first clinical remission received NY-ESO-1b peptide and Montanide every 3 weeks for five vaccinations. Tumor expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Toxicity was monitored using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Scale Version 2. NY-ESO-1 specific humoral immunity (ELISA), T-cell immunity (tetramer and ELISPOT), and delayed-type hypersensitivity were assessed on weeks 0, 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, and 16.
Treatment-related adverse events included grade 1 fatigue, anemia, pruritus, myalgias, and hyperthyroidism and grade 2 hypothyroidism. There were no grade 3/grade 4 adverse events. Three of four patients (75%) with NY-ESO-1-positive tumor showed T-cell immunity by tetramer (0.6-9.5%) and ELISPOT (range, 35-260 spots). Four of five patients (80%) with NY-ESO-1-negative tumor showed T-cell immunity by tetramer (1.0-12.1%) and/or ELISPOT (range, 35-400 spots). With a median follow-up of 11.3 months, six of nine patients (67%) have recurred, with a median progression-free survival of 13 months (95% confidence interval, 11.2 months-not reached). Three of nine patients remain in complete clinical remission at 25, 38, and 52 months.
Vaccination of high-risk HLA-A*0201-positive epithelial ovarian cancer patients with NY-ESO-1b and Montanide has minimal toxicity and induces specific T-cell immunity in patients with both NY-ESO-1-positive and NY-ESO-1-negative tumors. Additional study is warranted.
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ABSTRACT: Despite major advances in the treatment of ovarian cancer over the past two decades, it is still an incurable disease and requires the development of better treatment strategies. In recent years, we have developed a greater understanding of tumor immunology and the interactions between tumors and the immune system. This has led to the emergence of cancer immunotherapy as the fourth treatment modality in cancer. In this article, we address the principles of immunotherapy and different approaches that have been investigated over the past decade and discuss the future of immune therapy in ovarian cancer.Radiation Research 07/2014; 182(2). DOI:10.1667/RR13741.1 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: To develop a personalized peptide vaccine (PPV) for recurrent ovarian cancer patients and evaluate its efficacy from the point of view of overall survival (OS), Phase II study of PPV was performed. Patients and methods: Forty-two patients, 17 with platinum-sensitive and 25 with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer, were enrolled in this study and received a maximum of four peptides based on HLA-A types and IgG responses to the peptides in pre-vaccination plasma. Results: Expression of 13 of the 15 parental tumor-associated antigens encoding the vaccine peptides, with the two prostate-related antigens being the exceptions, was confirmed in the ovarian cancer tissues. No vaccine-related systemic severe adverse events were observed in any patients. Boosting of cytotoxic T lymphocytes or IgG responses specific for the peptides used for vaccination was observed in 18 or 13 of 42 cases at 6th vaccination, and 19 or 29 of 30 cases at 12th vaccination, respectively. The median survival time (MST) values of the platinum-sensitive- and platinum-resistant recurrent cases were 39.3 and 16.2 months, respectively. The MST of PPV monotherapy or PPV in combination with any chemotherapy during the 1st to 12th vaccination of platinum-sensitive cases was 39.3 or 32.2 months, and that of platinum-resistant cases was 16.8 or 16.1 months, respectively. Importantly, lymphocyte frequency and epitope spreading were significantly prognostic of OS. Discussion and conclusion: Because of the safety and possible prolongation of OS, a clinical trial of PPV without chemotherapy during the 1st to 12th vaccination in recurrent ovarian cancer patients is merited.Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 04/2014; DOI:10.3109/08923973.2014.913617 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In an attempt to significantly enhance immunogenicity of peptide cancer vaccines, we developed a novel non-emulsion depot-forming vaccine platform called DepoVax™ (DPX). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 restricted peptides naturally presented by cancer cells were used as antigens to create a therapeutic cancer vaccine, DPX-0907. In a phase I clinical study, the safety and immune-activating potential of DPX-0907 in advanced-stage breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer patients were examined, following encouraging results in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. The DPX-0907 vaccine was shown to be safe and well tolerated, with injection-site reactions being the most commonly reported adverse event. Vaccinated cancer patients exhibited a 61% immune response rate, with higher response rates in the breast and ovarian cancer patient cohorts. In keeping with the higher immune efficacy of this vaccine platform, antigen-specific responses were detected in 73% of immune responders after just one vaccination. In 83% of responders, peptide-specific T-cells were detected at two or more time points post-vaccination, with 64% of these patients showing evidence of immune persistence. Immune monitoring also demonstrated the generation of antigen-specific T-cell memory, with the ability to secrete multiple type 1 cytokines. The novel DPX formulation promotes multifunctional effector/memory responses to peptide-based tumor-associated antigens. The data support the capacity of DPX-0907 to elicit type-1 biased immune responses, warranting further clinical development of the vaccine. In this review, we discuss the rationale for developing DPX-based therapeutic cancer vaccine(s), with a focus on DPX-0907, aimed at inducing efficient anti-tumor immunity that may eventually be shown to prolong patient survival.Targets & therapy 01/2014; 8:27-38. DOI:10.2147/BTT.S55196