Does Childhood Treatment of ADHD With Stimulant Medication Affect Substance Abuse in Adulthood?

American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 12.3). 06/2008; 165(5):553-5. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08020237
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Available from: James Swanson, Dec 24, 2014
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    • "Supporting this line of argument, neuroimaging data in ADHD and obese subjects report commonality in brain structural abnormalities, including in the frontal cortex [33], [34], [35], [36], a locus considered to be important for self-regulation and EFs. In addition, ADHD subjects have been shown to have reduced DA receptor binding capacity in the hypothalamus, which controls for satiety and hunger [76]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous childhood disorder that often coexists with other psychiatric and somatic disorders. Recently, a link between ADHD and body weight dysregulation has been reported and often interpreted as impaired self-regulation that is shared between the two conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between body weight/BMI and cognitive, emotional and motor characteristics in children with ADHD. 284 ADHD children were stratified by weight status/BMI according to WHO classification and compared with regard to their neurocognitive characteristics, motivational style, and motor profile as assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests. All comparisons were adjusted for demographic characteristics of relevance including, socioeconomic status (SES). Both Obese and overweight ADHD children exhibited significantly lower SES compared to normal weight ADHD children. No significant differences were observed between the three groups with regards to their neurocognitive, emotional and motor profile. Our findings provide evidence that differences in weight/BMI are not accounted for by cognitive, motivational and motor profiles. Socio-economic characteristics are strongly associated with overweight and obesity in ADHD children and may inform strategies aimed at promoting healthier weight.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e55351. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055351 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "There is concern that the use of stimulant medications to treat ADHD may play a role in the development of drug addiction [111]. However, when taken in clinical doses and within a clinical context there appears to be very little abuse potential [51, 103]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most common neuropsychiatric conditions of childhood, often has a chronic course and persists into adulthood in many individuals. ADHD may have a clinically important impact on health-related quality of life in children, a significant impact on parents' emotional health and interfere with family activities/cohesion. To date, the main targets of ADHD treatment have focused on reducing the severity of symptoms during the school day and improving academic performance. However, the treatment of ADHD should reach beyond symptom control to address the issues of social competencies and improvement of health-related quality of life from the perspectives of individuals with ADHD and their families, to support them in reaching their full developmental potential. Methylphenidate (MPH) is recognised as the first-line choice of pharmacotherapy for ADHD in children and adolescents. This paper focuses on the importance and benefits to child development of ADHD symptom control beyond the school day only, i.e. extending into late afternoon and evening and uses the example of an extended-release MPH formulation (OROS((R)) MPH) to demonstrate the potential benefits of active full day coverage (12 h) with a single daily dose. Concerns of long-term stimulant treatment are also discussed.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 10/2009; 19(4):325-40. DOI:10.1007/s00787-009-0056-1 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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