Developing a 10-Item Mania Scale From the Parent General Behavior Inventory for Children and Adolescents

Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3270, USA.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.5). 04/2008; 69(5):831-9. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.v69n0517
Source: PubMed


Bipolar disorder is being diagnosed and treated in children and adolescents at a rapidly increasing rate, despite the lack of validated instruments to help screen for the condition or differentiate it from more common disorders. The goal of the present study was to develop and validate a brief (10 item) instrument to assess mania in a large sample of outpatients presenting with a variety of different DSM-IV diagnoses, including frequent comorbid conditions.
Parents presenting to a Midwestern academic outpatient medical center for psychiatric evaluation of their child completed the Parent General Behavior Inventory (P-GBI), a 73-item mood inventory that comprises a 46-item depressive symptom scale and a 28-item hypomanic/biphasic scale (1 item is used in both scales), as part of a screening assessment that included a semistructured psychiatric interview of both the parent and the child to determine the child's diagnoses. The study was conducted between the years 1999 and 2004.
Six hundred thirty-seven youths received a diagnostic assessment with either the Epidemiologic or Present and Lifetime Version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. A 10-item form derived from the 73-item P-GBI had good reliability (alpha = .92), correlated (r = 0.95) with the 28-item scale, and showed significantly better discrimination of bipolar disorders (area under the receiving operating characteristic [AUROC] curve of 0.856 vs. 0.832 for the 28-item scale, p < .005), with good precision for estimation of individual scores for cases up to 2 standard deviations elevated on the latent trait. The 10-item scale also did well discriminating bipolar from unipolar (AUROC = 0.86) and bipolar from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AUROC = 0.82) cases.
Findings suggest that parents most notice elated mood, high energy, irritability, and rapid changes in mood and energy as the prominent features of juvenile bipolar disorder.

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    • "Inter-rater reliability for all psychiatric diagnoses ascertained through the KSADS was > 0.8. On the day of scanning, parents/guardians of youth participants completed: the Parent Version of the General Behavior Inventory (Youngstrom et al. 2008), "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) (BO) are at higher risk of BD than offspring of parents with non-BD psychopathology (NBO), although both groups are at higher risk than offspring of psychiatrically healthy parents (HC) for other affective and psychiatric disorders. Abnormal functioning in reward circuitry has been demonstrated previously in individuals with BD. We aimed to determine whether activation and functional connectivity in this circuitry during risky decision-making differentiated BO, NBO and HC. Method: BO (n = 29; mean age = 13.8 years; 14 female), NBO (n = 28; mean age = 13.9 years; 12 female) and HC (n = 23; mean age = 13.7 years; 11 female) were scanned while performing a number-guessing reward task. Of the participants, 11 BO and 12 NBO had current non-BD psychopathology; five BO and four NBO were taking psychotropic medications. Results: A 3 (group) × 2 (conditions: win-control/loss-control) analysis of variance revealed a main effect of group on right frontal pole activation: BO showed significantly greater activation than HC. There was a significant main effect of group on functional connectivity between the bilateral ventral striatum and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (Z > 3.09, cluster-p < 0.05): BO showed significantly greater negative functional connectivity than other participants. These between-group differences remained after removing youth with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic medications from analyses. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that reward circuitry activation and functional connectivity distinguish BO from NBO and HC. The fact that the pattern of findings remained when comparing healthy BO v. healthy NBO v. HC suggests that these neuroimaging measures may represent trait-level neurobiological markers conferring either risk for, or protection against, BD in youth.
    Psychological Medicine 09/2015; DOI:10.1017/S003329171500166X · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    • "Caregivers completed the Parent General Behavior Inventory 10-Item Mania Scale (PGBI-10M) [13] to screen for elevated symptoms of mania (ESM). Items comprising the PGBI-10M describe hypomanic, manic, and biphasic symptoms and have been reported to discriminate BPSD in youth from other diagnoses [13]. Items are scored from 0 (“never or hardly ever”) to 3 (“very often or almost constantly”); total scores range from 0 to 30 with higher scores indicating greater symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: This report evaluates whether classification tree algorithms (CTA) may improve the identification of individuals at risk for bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD). Analyses used the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) cohort (629 youth, 148 with BPSD and 481 without BPSD). Parent ratings of mania symptoms, stressful life events, parenting stress, and parental history of mania were included as risk factors. Comparable overall accuracy was observed for CTA (75.4%) relative to logistic regression (77.6%). However, CTA showed increased sensitivity (0.28 vs. 0.18) at the expense of slightly decreased specificity and positive predictive power. The advantage of CTA algorithms for clinical decision making is demonstrated by the combinations of predictors most useful for altering the probability of BPSD. The 24% sample probability of BPSD was substantially decreased in youth with low screening and baseline parent ratings of mania, negative parental history of mania, and low levels of stressful life events (2%). High screening plus high baseline parent-rated mania nearly doubled the BPSD probability (46%). Future work will benefit from examining additional, powerful predictors, such as alternative data sources (e.g., clinician ratings, neurocognitive test data); these may increase the clinical utility of CTA models further.
    Journal of Clinical Medicine 03/2014; 3(1):218-232. DOI:10.3390/jcm3010218
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    • "Yearly assessments throughout LAMS1 and LAMS2 included the parent/guardian's reported PGBI-10M over the last 6 months (Youngstrom et al. 2005, 2008 "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging measures of behavioral and emotional dysregulation can yield biomarkers denoting developmental trajectories of psychiatric pathology in youth. We aimed to identify functional abnormalities in emotion regulation (ER) neural circuitry associated with different behavioral and emotional dysregulation trajectories using latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and neuroimaging. A total of 61 youth (9-17 years) from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study, and 24 healthy control youth, completed an emotional face n-back ER task during scanning. LCGA was performed on 12 biannual reports completed over 5 years of the Parent General Behavior Inventory 10-Item Mania Scale (PGBI-10M), a parental report of the child's difficulty regulating positive mood and energy. There were two latent classes of PGBI-10M trajectories: high and decreasing (HighD; n = 22) and low and decreasing (LowD; n = 39) course of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over the 12 time points. Task performance was >89% in all youth, but more accurate in healthy controls and LowD versus HighD (p < 0.001). During ER, LowD had greater activity than HighD and healthy controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a key ER region, and greater functional connectivity than HighD between the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (p's < 0.001, corrected). Patterns of function in lateral prefrontal cortical-amygdala circuitry in youth denote the severity of the developmental trajectory of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over time, and may be biological targets to guide differential treatment and novel treatment development for different levels of behavioral and emotional dysregulation in youth.
    Psychological Medicine 01/2014; 27(12):1-13. DOI:10.1017/S0033291714000087 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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