Article

Measurement of neutrophil adhesion under conditions mimicking blood flow.

Department of Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) (Impact Factor: 1.29). 02/2007; 412:239-56. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-59745-467-4_16
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neutrophil migration from blood into tissues is required for effective innate immune responses against infection. Adhesion of the neutrophil in blood to the vascular endothelium and eventual migration through the vessel wall and accumulation at the site of infection involves different classes of adhesion molecules. In vivo intravital microscopy studies show that different adhesion molecules mediate binding events under shear forces associated with blood flow vs binding events that take place under static conditions. To fully analyze the function of these adhesion molecules in vitro, assays must reflect the hemodynamic forces associated with blood flow. We outline two approaches used to study neutrophil adhesion under conditions that mimic blood flow.

1 Bookmark
 · 
55 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell. They form an essential part of the innate immune system. During acute inflammation, neutrophils are the first inflammatory cells to migrate to the site of injury. Recruitment of neutrophils to an injury site is a stepwise process that includes first, dilation of blood vessels to increase blood flow; second, microvascular structural changes and escape of plasma proteins from the bloodstream; third, rolling, adhesion and transmigration of the neutrophil across the endothelium; and fourth accumulation of neutrophils at the site of injury. A wide array of in vivo and in vitro methods has evolved to enable the study of these processes. This method focuses on neutrophil transmigration across human endothelial cells. One popular method for examining the molecular processes involved in neutrophil transmigration utilizes human neutrophils interacting with primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Neutrophil isolation has been described visually elsewhere; thus this article will show the method for isolation of HUVEC. Once isolated and grown to confluence, endothelial cells are activated resulting in the upregulation of adhesion and activation molecules. For example, activation of endothelial cells with cytokines like TNF-α results in increased E-selectin and IL-8 expression. E-selectin mediates capture and rolling of neutrophils and IL-8 mediates activation and firm adhesion of neutrophils. After adhesion neutrophils transmigrate. Transmigration can occur paracellularly (through endothelial cell junctions) or transcellularly (through the endothelial cell itself). In most cases, these interactions occur under flow conditions found in the vasculature. The parallel plate flow chamber is a widely used system that mimics the hydrodynamic shear stresses found in vivo and enables the study of neutrophil recruitment under flow condition in vitro. Several companies produce parallel plate flow chambers and each have advantages and disadvantages. If fluorescent imaging is needed, glass or an optically similar polymer needs to be used. Endothelial cells do not grow well on glass. Here we present an easy and rapid method for phase-contrast, DIC and fluorescent imaging of neutrophil transmigration using a low volume ibidi channel slide made of a polymer that supports the rapid adhesion and growth of human endothelial cells and has optical qualities that are comparable to glass. In this method, endothelial cells were grown and stimulated in an ibidi μslide. Neutrophils were introduced under flow conditions and transmigration was assessed. Fluorescent imaging of the junctions enabled real-time determination of the extent of paracellular versus transcellular transmigration.
    Journal of Visualized Experiments 01/2012;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The recruitment of leukocytes from circulation to sites of inflammation requires several families of adhesion molecules among which are selectins expressed on a variety of cells. In addition, they have also been shown to play key roles in the activation of cells in inflammation. To explore the collective role of E-, L-, and P- selectins in OVA-induced Th2 mediated response in acute asthma pathophysiology, ELP-/- mice were used and compared with age-matched wildtype (WT). Asthma phenotype was assessed by measuring pulmonary function, inflammation and OVA-specific serum IgE, which were completely abrogated in ELP-/- mice. Adoptive transfer of sensitized L selectin+CD4+ T cells into naïve ELP-/- mice which post-OVA challenge, developed asthma, suggesting that L-selectin may be critically involved in the onset of Th2 response in asthma. Tissue resident ELP-deficient cells were otherwise functionally competent as proved by normal proliferative response. Conclusions: Comparative studies between ELP-/- and WT mice uncovered functional roles of these three integrins in inflammatory response in allergic asthma. All three selectins seem to impede inflammatory migration while only L-selectin also possibly regulates activation of specific T cell subsets in lung and airways.
    Journal of Inflammation 08/2011; 8:19. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neutrophilic granulocytes play a fundamental role in cardiovascular disease. They interact with platelet aggregates via the integrin Mac-1 and the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα). In vivo, GPIbα presentation is highly variable under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we quantitatively determined the conditions for neutrophil adhesion in a biomimetic in vitro system, which allowed precise adjustment of the spacings between human GPIbα presented on the nanoscale from 60 to 200 nm. Unlike most conventional nanopatterning approaches, this method provided control over the local receptor density (spacing) rather than just the global receptor density. Under physiological flow conditions, neutrophils required a minimum spacing of GPIbα molecules to successfully adhere. In contrast, under low-flow conditions, neutrophils adhered on all tested spacings with subtle but nonlinear differences in cell response, including spreading area, spreading kinetics, adhesion maturation, and mobility. Surprisingly, Mac-1-dependent neutrophil adhesion was very robust to GPIbα density variations up to 1 order of magnitude. This complex response map indicates that neutrophil adhesion under flow and adhesion maturation are differentially regulated by GPIbα density. Our study reveals how Mac-1/GPIbα interactions govern cell adhesion and how neutrophils process the number of available surface receptors on the nanoscale. In the future, such in vitro studies can be useful to determine optimum therapeutic ranges for targeting this interaction.
    ACS Nano 10/2013; · 12.03 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
4 Downloads
Available from
May 27, 2014