Crystal structure of a new type of NADPH-dependent quinone oxidoreductase (QOR2) from Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli QOR2 [NAD(P)H-dependent quinone oxidoreductase; a ytfG gene product], which catalyzes two-electron reduction of methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, is a new type of quinone-reducing enzyme with distinct primary sequence and oligomeric conformation from previously known quinone oxidoreductases. The crystal structures of native QOR2 and the QOR2-NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form) complex reveal that QOR2 consists of two domains (N-domain and C-domain) resembling those of NmrA, a negative transcriptional regulator that belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The N-domain, which adopts the Rossmann fold, provides a platform for NADPH binding, whereas the C-domain, which contains a hydrophobic pocket connected to the NADPH-binding site, appears to play important roles in substrate binding. Asn143 near the NADPH-binding site has been identified to be involved in substrate binding and catalysis from structural and mutational analyses. Moreover, compared with wild-type strain, the qor2-overexpressing strain shows growth retardation and remarkable decrease in several enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, suggesting that QOR2 could play some physiological roles in addition to quinone reduction.