Crystal structure of a new type of NADPH-dependent quinone oxidoreductase (QOR2) from Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli QOR2 [NAD(P)H-dependent quinone oxidoreductase; a ytfG gene product], which catalyzes two-electron reduction of methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, is a new type of quinone-reducing enzyme with distinct primary sequence and oligomeric conformation from previously known quinone oxidoreductases. The crystal structures of native QOR2 and the QOR2-NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form) complex reveal that QOR2 consists of two domains (N-domain and C-domain) resembling those of NmrA, a negative transcriptional regulator that belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The N-domain, which adopts the Rossmann fold, provides a platform for NADPH binding, whereas the C-domain, which contains a hydrophobic pocket connected to the NADPH-binding site, appears to play important roles in substrate binding. Asn143 near the NADPH-binding site has been identified to be involved in substrate binding and catalysis from structural and mutational analyses. Moreover, compared with wild-type strain, the qor2-overexpressing strain shows growth retardation and remarkable decrease in several enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, suggesting that QOR2 could play some physiological roles in addition to quinone reduction.
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ABSTRACT: The crystal structures of the zeta-crystalline-like soluble quinone oxidoreductase from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (QOR(Tt)) and of its complex with NADPH have been determined at 2.3- and 2.8-A resolutions, respectively. QOR(Tt) is composed of two domains, and its overall fold is similar to the folds of Escherichia coli quinone oxidoreductase (QOR(Ec)) and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. QOR(Tt) forms a homodimer in the crystal by interaction of the betaF-strands in domain II, forming a large beta-sheet that crosses the dimer interface. High thermostability of QOR(Tt) was evidenced by circular dichroic measurement. NADPH is located between the two domains in the QOR(Tt)-NADPH complex. The disordered segment involved in the coenzyme binding of apo-QOR(Tt) becomes ordered upon NADPH binding. The segment covers an NADPH-binding cleft and may serve as a lid. The 2'-phosphate group of the adenine of NADPH is surrounded by polar and positively charged residues in QOR(Tt), suggesting that QOR(Tt) binds NADPH more readily than NADH. The putative substrate-binding site of QOR(Tt), unlike that of QOR(Ec), is largely blocked by nearby residues, permitting access only to small substrates. This may explain why QOR(Tt) has weak p-benzoquinone reduction activity and is inactive with such large substrates of QOR(Ec) as 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and phenanthraquinone.Journal of Bacteriology 08/2003; 185(14):4211-8. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to clarify the poorly understood mechanisms of two-electron reduction of quinones by flavoenzymes, we examined the quinone reductase reactions of a member of a structurally distinct old yellow enzyme family, Enterobacter cloacae PB2 pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase (PETNR). PETNR catalyzes two-electron reduction of quinones according to a 'ping-pong' scheme. A multiparameter analysis shows that the reactivity of quinones increases with an increase in their single-electron reduction potential and pK(a) of their semiquinones (a three-step (e(-),H(+),e(-)) hydride transfer scheme), or with an increase in their hydride-transfer potential (E(7)(H(-))) (a single-step (H(-)) hydride transfer scheme), and decreases with a decrease in their van der Waals volume. However, the pH-dependence of PETNR reactivity is more consistent with a single-step hydride transfer. A comparison of X-ray data of PETNR, mammalian NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and Enterobacter cloacae nitroreductase, which reduce quinones in a two-electron way, and their reactivity revealed that PETNR is much less reactive, and much less sensitive to the quinone substrate steric effects than NQO1. This may be attributed to the lack of pi-pi stacking between quinone and the displaced aromatic amino acid in the active center, e.g., with Phe-178' in NQO1.Acta biochimica Polonica 02/2007; 54(2):379-85. · 1.19 Impact Factor
Article: Role of quinones in toxicology.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Quinones represent a class of toxicological intermediates which can create a variety of hazardous effects in vivo, including acute cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. The mechanisms by which quinones cause these effects can be quite complex. Quinones are Michael acceptors, and cellular damage can occur through alkylation of crucial cellular proteins and/or DNA. Alternatively, quinones are highly redox active molecules which can redox cycle with their semiquinone radicals, leading to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and ultimately the hydroxyl radical. Production of ROS can cause severe oxidative stress within cells through the formation of oxidized cellular macromolecules, including lipids, proteins, and DNA. Formation of oxidatively damaged bases such as 8-oxodeoxyguanosine has been associated with aging and carcinogenesis. Furthermore, ROS can activate a number of signaling pathways, including protein kinase C and RAS. This review explores the varied cytotoxic effects of quinones using specific examples, including quinones produced from benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, estrogens, and catecholamines. The evidence strongly suggests that the numerous mechanisms of quinone toxicity (i.e., alkylation vs oxidative stress) can be correlated with the known pathology of the parent compound(s).Chemical Research in Toxicology 04/2000; 13(3):135-60. · 3.67 Impact Factor