Studies on land application of sewage sludge and its limiting factors.
ABSTRACT Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of sewage sludge application on the heavy metal content in soils and grasses. The sewage sludge was obtained from Northern Shenyang Wastewater Treatment Plant, China, and applied at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 150tha(-1). Native grasses Zoysia japonica and Poa annua were chosen as experimental plants. The experimental results showed that nutrient content of the soil, especially organic matter, was increased after sewage sludge application. The grass biomass was increased and the grass growing season was longer. Heavy metal concentrations in the soil also increased; however, the Zn content did not exceed the stringent Chinese environmental quality standard for soil. Pb and Cu did not exceed the standard for B grade soil, but Cd concentration in soil amended by sewage sludge has exceeded the B grade standard. Therefore, it is suggested that the sewage sludge produced from the wastewater treatment plant should not be applied to farmland, for which B grade soil or better is required. The sludge is suitable for application to forestry and grasslands or nurseries where food chain contamination with cadmium is not a concern.
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ABSTRACT: New guidelines for using biosolids in UK agriculture favour the use of enhanced treated biosolids, such as dried and composted cakes, due to concerns about the potential for transfer of pathogens into the food chain. However, there is a need to ensure that their use is environmentally acceptable and does not increase the risk to potable water supplies or the food chain from other contaminants such as heavy metals and xenobiotic organic chemicals. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of composted and dried mesophilic anaerobically digested dewatered (MADD) biosolids would increase the risk of heavy metal leaching from cultivated horizons when compared to more conventionally used MADD cake. Three biosolids (MADD sewage sludge cake - fresh, dried and composted) were mixed with a sand (typic quartzipsamments, %OM = 3.0, pH = 6.5) or a sandy loam (typic hapludalf, %OM = 4.8, pH = 7.6) at an application rate equivalent to 250 kg N/ha/y resulting in loadings of approximately Zn: 6 microg, Cu: 2 microg, Pb: 5 microg and Ni: 0.2 microg/g of soil dry weight basis. These amended soils were repacked into columns (0.4 m by 0.1 m internal diameter) and leaching of Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni was investigated following application of two 24 h simulated rainfall events of 4.5 mm/h. Water balance data and the use of conservative tracers (Cl- and Br ) showed that the hydrological regimes of each core were comparable and, thus, unlikely to account for differences in metal leaching observed. Although no significant difference (P = 0.05) was observed between biosolid amended and control soils, those amended with composted sludge consistently gave higher loss of all metals than did the control soils. Total losses of metals from compost amended soil over the two rainfall events were in the ranges, Zn:20.5-58.2, Cu:9.0-30.5, Pb:24.2-51.2 and Ni:16.0-39.8 microg metal/kg amended soil, compared with Zn:16.4-41.1, Cu:6.2-25.3, Pb:16.9-41.7, and Ni:3.7-25.4 microg metal/kg soil from the control soils. Losses of Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni from fresh MADD cake amended soils (19.8-41.3, 3.2-25.8, 21.6-51.6 and 7.6-36.5 microg metal/kg amended soil, respectively) and from dry MADD cake amended soils (10.7-36.7, 1.8-23.8, 21.2-51.2 and 6.8-39.2 microg metal/kg amended soil, respectively) were similar to the controls. Generally, quantities of metals leached followed the order Zn = Pb > Cu > Ni, which was consistent with the levels of metals in the original sludge/soil mixtures. These results suggest that composting or drying MADD biosolids is unlikely to increase the risk of groundwater contamination when compared to the use of MADD cake; therefore, the changes in UK sludge use in agriculture guidelines are satisfactory in this respect.Bioresource Technology 07/2001; 78(2):171-9. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This is the second of two papers presenting the data from an experiment on the application of aerobically-digested sewage sludge (AES), anaerobic lagoon septic wastes (ANS), sewage sludge compost and fertilizer to soils for grass forage and feed corn production at two different sites in Nova Scotia. Crop yields, plant tissue and Mehlich-1 extractable soil nutrients were evaluated; 15 elements were analyzed in the plant tissue and 9 elements in the soil extracts. This paper describes the Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and B content of the crops and the Mehlich-1 extractable content of the soils. The response to the amendments was not consistent at the two sites with the two different crops. We found that the septic sludge (ANS) produced the highest forage Fe, Cu and Zn levels and was equal to compost in elevating corn stover and forage S and the forage B content. The compost produced the highest forage Ca and corn Zn, the AES produced the highest corn Mn, and fertilizer produced the highest forage Mn. None of the amendments produced excessive levels of the above nutrients; rather, the amendments improved the feed quality of the forage and corn stover. Lastly, it was noted that the Mehlich-1 extract only had a significantly positive correlation with forage Cu content.Bioresource Technology 07/2005; 96(9):1029-38. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In France, the yearly production of sludge from wastewater treatment plants is 900,000 metric tons dry matter and 60% of this is reused for land application. Today, the sustainability of this pathway is open to question. Among the different arguments cited are the levels of metal trace elements and the risks of accumulation in soils. With the ultimate aim of agronomic sludge recycling, the transfer of metal trace elements has been studied using vegetation containers planted with rye-grass under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. Samples of a domestic sludge, an industrial sludge and a fertilizer have been mixed with the soil. By monitoring the growth of the rye-grass, we have been able to observe that the addition of sludge increases production of plant matter. It appears that the roots absorb higher quantities of metal trace elements and form a barrier to their transfer to the above ground parts of the rye-grass. For the group of metal trace elements studied, no significant differences have been observed between the rye-grass grown on soil alone and that on soils amended with fertilizer or urban sludge. For the majority of the vegetation containers studied, there has been no significant modification in the soil metal distribution over time, as a result of the addition of urban sludge, and no significant difference between fertilizers and sludges.Water Science & Technology 02/2002; 46(10):217-24. · 1.10 Impact Factor