Predicting people with stroke at risk of falls
ABSTRACT falls are common following a stroke, but knowledge about predicting future fallers is lacking.
to identify, at discharge from hospital, those who are most at risk of repeated falls.
consecutively hospitalised people with stroke (independently mobile prior to stroke and with intact gross cognitive function) were recruited. Subjects completed a battery of tests (balance, function, mood and attention) within 2 weeks of leaving hospital and at 12 months post hospital discharge.
122 participants (mean age 70.2 years) were recruited. Fall status at 12 months was available for 115 participants and of those, 63 [55%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 46-64] experienced one or more falls, 48 (42%; 95% CI 33-51) experienced repeated falls, and 62 (54%) experienced near-falls. All variables available at discharge were screened as potential predictors of falling. Six variables emerged [near-falling in hospital, Rivermead leg and trunk score, Rivermead upper limb score, Berg Balance score, mean functional reach, and the Nottingham extended activities of daily living (NEADL) score]. A score of near-falls in hospital and upper limb function was the best predictor with 70% specificity and 60% sensitivity.
participants who were unstable (near-falls) in hospital with poor upper limb function (unable to save themselves) were most at risk of falls.
SourceAvailable from: etheses.bham.ac.uk
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ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose-Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs), a surrogate for cerebral small-vessel disease, have been shown to be associated with decreasing mobility, gait instability, and falls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether WMLs of the brain are associated with increased incidence of hospital admissions because of any trauma and hip-fractures in a cohort of patients with stroke. Methods-We included 383 consecutive patients aged 55 to 85 years with ischemic stroke admitted to the Helsinki University Central Hospital (The Stroke Aging Memory cohort) with a 12-year follow-up. National register data were reviewed for hip-fractures, other traumatic injuries, survival data, and causes of death. WMLs were rated using MRI and dichotomized as none to mild and moderate to severe. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier plots (log-rank) and a complex Cox multivariable hazards models for multiple cases per subject to assess hazard ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results-During the 12-year follow-up, there were more hip-fractures (13.5% versus 6.5%; log-rank, P=0.01) and more hospital admissions because of traumatic injury (22.2% versus 16.7%; log-rank, P=0.04) in the moderate-to-severe than in the none-to-mild WMLs group. In the complex samples, Cox multivariable model adjusting for age, sex, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, infarct size, and poststroke dementia, moderate-to-severe WMLs were associated with increased incidences of hospital admissions because of hip-fractures (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-10.21) and traumatic injuries including hip-fractures (hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.87). Conclusions-Patients with ischemic stroke and moderate-to-severe WMLs are at high risk, who experience serious traumatic injuries and especially hip-fractures requiring hospital treatment.Stroke 08/2014; 45(10). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006116 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives The objective was to examine whether the emergency department (ED) evaluation of older adult fallers is concordant with the Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines.Methods This study was a chart review of randomly selected older adult ED fall patients from one urban academic teaching hospital. Patients 65 years and older who had ED fall visits in 2012 and who had primary care physicians within our hospital network during the past 3 years were included. Transferred patients were excluded. The data collection instrument was adapted from ED fall evaluation recommendations.ResultsThere were 350 patients in this study. The mean (±SD) patient age was 80.1 (±8.8) years, 124 (35%) were male, 327 (93%) were white, and 298 (85%) were community dwelling. The range with which history and physical examination findings were concordant with fall guidelines was 1% to 85%. Cause and location of fall were the two most frequently reported history items (85 and 81%, respectively), while asking about baseline vision was only reported 1% of the time. Evaluating for sensory deficits and muscle strength were the two most frequently reported physical examinations (63 and 48%, respectively), while balance was evaluated with the lowest frequency (1%). Patients who received more guideline-recommended evaluations were older with more comorbid conditions and were transferred to an observation unit or admitted to the hospital more frequently. Overall, more than half of these elderly patients (56%) were discharged from the ED to their place of preadmission residence.Conclusions The current ED evaluation of older adult fallers is discordant with general and ED-specific fall guidelines. Future studies are warranted to investigate ways to successfully implement fall evaluation guidelines.Academic Emergency Medicine 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/acem.12634 · 2.20 Impact Factor